“Differences between the conduct of the multitude and the conduct of the princes do not derive from differences in their nature, that being the same in both (though if there be some superiority either way, it will be found on the side of the people); rather, they derive from differences in their respect for the laws under which they live.”
"It is a course which perhaps would not have been necessary had it been possible to form a state composed of wise men, but as every multitude is fickle, full of lawless desires, unreasoned passion, and violent anger, the multitude must be held in by invisible terrors and suchlike pageantry. For this reason I think, not that the ancients acted rashly and at haphazard in introducing among the people notions concerning the gods and beliefs in the terrors of hell, but that the moderns are most rash and foolish in banishing such beliefs."
"When a state after having passed with safety through many and great dangers arrives at the higher degree of power, and possesses an entire and undisputed sovereignty, it is manifest that the long continuance of prosperity must give birth to costly and luxurious manners, and that the minds of men will be heated with ambitious contests, and become too eager and aspiring in the pursuit of dignities. And as those evils are continually increased, the desire of power and rule, along with the imagined ignominy of remaining in a subject state, will first begin to work the ruin of the republic; arrogance and luxury will afterwards advance it; and in the end the change will be completed by the people; when the avarice of some is found to injure and oppress them, and the ambition of others swells their vanity, and poisons them with flattering hopes. For then, being inflamed with rage, and following only the dictates of their passions, they no longer will submit to any control, or be contented with an equal share of the administration, in conjunction with their rules; but will draw to themselves the entire sovereignty and supreme direction of all affairs. When this is done, the government will assume indeed the fairest of all names, that of a free and popular state; but will in truth be the greatest of all evils, the government of the multitude."
-Polybius (Polybius was a piece of shit, he's right about the reason a State falls, but he just added the part at the end because he was an asshole)
People should begin to study Psychological Operations in Guerilla Warfare (the Police should study it to), there is a book written about it by he CIA.
Here are some Abstract examples:
When you walk around a Public place as a large armed group, people will instinctively believe that the guns may be turned on them. So what has to be done is the people have to believe the guns are there for them. Guerillas need to hang up their guns and help the community, or teach the community how to use and clean a gun individually, person-to-person. And when the Guerillas leave they should tell the community to keep nothing secret, and to tell the Government anything and everything they feel like telling them, like how many people there were, what kinds of guns they had, what they did while they were there, etc.
There is also the aspect of Cadres and education of the Guerillas, and equality among Guerillas, and making sure all Guerillas know why they are doing what they are doing, and staging Political takeovers of regions using Demonstrations/Protests.
Here are some very recent examples of the Psychology of Guerilla Warfare:
"The Daredevils of Sassoun took over the Ereubuni police station in Yerevan around 5:30 a.m. on July 17, 2016. The armed group drove a vehicle through the front door of the police station. One policeman was killed and at least two were injured (one of them died in hospital in 13 August). Nine people were taken hostage. Two policemen were released following negotiations. General Vitaly Balasanyan, a mediator between the government and the opposition, said those released were Yerevan's deputy police chief Valery Osipyan and national deputy police chief Vardan Yeghiazaryan. Throughout the day Facebook was inaccessible and the websites of media outlets reporting on developments were being shut down due to the number of people gathering in support of the Daredevils of Sassoun and against Government corruption.
On July 21, after releasing two hostages, the gunmen still held onto four hostages total. These hostages included: General Major Vardan Egiazaryan, the deputy head of the Armenian police force, and Colonel Valeri Osipyan, the deputy chief of Yerevan’s municipal police force. During the siege two of the armed men have sustained injuries
On July 22, President Serzh Sargsyan addressed the nation and said, " I urge the armed people, who have occupied the territory of the police headquarters, to show restraint and not endanger the lives of others with their reckless moves. Hostages must be released,” and also added that the armed group must also surrender their weapons. The same day, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Supreme Body of Armenia condemned the acts of Sasna Tsrer by stating, "The A.R.F.-Dashnaktsutyun seeks the settlement of the current situation exclusively by peaceful means, considers new bloodshed as unacceptable, demands professionalism from law enforcing agencies, demands that the rights and dignity of law-abiding citizens be respected, and strongly condemns non-political methods and extremist thinking."
On 23 July, there were indications the standoff was over. 4 officers were set free, which included Vartan Yeghiazarian and Valeri Osipinian. During negotiations, Armenian law enforcement allowed Sasna Tsrer to speak with journalists in a designated neutral zone around the occupied police station. Approximately 40 reporters held a news conference but were not allowed to hold a live broadcast. At the news conference, Pavlik Manukyan stated that the police department has become evil for the people and enjoy lavish life styles with the use of unnecessary military equipment for policing.
On 25 July, the gunmen had set a police vehicle on fire inside the headquarters, according to police spokesman Ashot Aharonian. It was the third vehicle to have been burned in two days.
On July 27, 4 medics were allowed to enter the police station to treat Araik Handonyan, one of the armed men who was wounded in the leg but refused to go to the hospital.
On July 30, the police issued an ultimatum to release all hostages and vacate the building or prepare for a police assault. Sasna Tsrer opened fire and shot down another officer. The group eventually surrendered that day to avoid further bloodshed. After surrendering, the group issued a statement saying, "We will continue our struggle from prison. We believe that we have achieved our goal: we became the spark that allowed people to rise up and it makes no sense to spill blood."
Demonstrators chose to march down Baghramyan Avenue towards the presidential residence and government buildings but were met with police, who placed coils of barbed wire across the avenue to stop the protests. Demonstrators still managed to block traffic for two hours and eventually dispersed the following day."
This example is just a "lessons learned" for the history books. And ISIS is not a great example, because the ferocity of the Syrian Government and Saddam Hussein, and the training/monkey-see-monkey-do coming from the presence of the US military, and the experiences some of them had in Guantanamo Bay has just made them literally cut-throat. And then after the established a State, they started reaching out and attacking other States and killing mass numbers of their own people, so not a great example. But when they took over Mosul, they put out a video on the internet, and in the video it showed them going house to house dressed as Iraqi Security Forces, and they go in a guys house and tell him "We have knowledge that you are cooperating with ISIS", etc. and he's like "No, No, I work for the Iraqi Security Forces" and after he showed them his ID and badge and everything, slowly they let him know that they are ISIS and he just confessed to them. And when the Iraqi soldiers saw that, they all dropped their guns and left Mosul for them to take. And the massive presence of Call of Duty and Assassins Creed imagery in their videos should be pointed out also. Assassins come from the Islamic "Hashashins". There is a book called "The Ancient Art of Strangulation" which explains the Assassin art, in which the person was to kill the target, anyone else around, and often die. And example of a story from the Assassin Culture is that there was a King and he was running from the Assassins because something happened, so he was in the desert and sleeping in a tent every night with Bodyguards surrounding him, and when he woke up in the morning he woke up and there was a small cake on a plate for him, and it was common for the Assassins to poison people, and he knew that at least one if not all of his guards were Assassins. The would infiltrate political leaders and kings inner circles, by becoming slaves or servants for years and years, and eventually kill their target and usually die themselves. The "Old Man of the Mountain" was the leader of the Hashashins and they took control of their fort by slowly becoming the majority of the soldiers employed there, then killing everyone else left, and taking it for themselves. The Christian version was the Crusaders.
In India there were also the Thuggee, which is where the word "Thug" comes from (Italians used it, and now Gangster Culture uses it. "Gangster" was also Italian first in America.). The Thuggee were worshippers of Kali, Goddess of Death, and they wanted to die in battle or run off a cliff if they couldn't find a battle. And they were called the "Noose Operators" by the British Empire when they came in. They would do things like pretend to be travelers on a road, and as a Caravan would come up they would start a conversation with them, then kind of join them, and then later in the road there would be another 1 or 2 of the Thuggee also just pretending to be travelers, then another and another, and then they would lead the group to a kill spot.
Everyone may Remember the Bundys. They were a group of Ranchers in Nevada who had used Federal land for grazing, and had racked up over $1,000,000 in grazing fees (not some small group of cows, and some poor rancher). But he decided that he didn't want to pay the grazing fees, and stood up to the Federal Government when they came to arrest them for using the land, and people from the Oath Keepers and other groups joined them, making it a kind of large event, and everyone had guns. So eventually the Federal Government stood down. A few years later the same family with a small group of other people, took over a Wildlife Refuge in Oregon. After that the Government brought charges on them for both events. The Bundys were seen as Freedom Fighters by many people across America.
Antifa (Pronounced: "Anne-tifa, or An-tifuh" not "Anti-fa or Antee-fuh"), meaning "Anti-Fascist" is a group that resembles a group that existed during WWII. Some people believe that they are violent, and therefor they are fascists themselves, but violence does not mean fascism.
The Italian resistance movement is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II. It was formed by Italians of any age, gender, political opinion and social class, following the Allied invasion of the country, the armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces, and German military occupation of northern Italy. The movement is also known as the Italian resistance and the Italian partisans (partigiani in Italian). The brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as the Italian Liberation War (when referring to the part they took in the Italian Campaign against the Axis) or as the Italian Civil War (when referring specifically to the conflict with the Fascists). The modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of the resistance.
The FARC are the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army, or Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo in Spanish. They are maybe what you think of when you think of Guerillas, living in the jungle, with camo, and oil canisters, etc. They lived in the Jungle from the 70s until this year when they signed a treaty with the Colombian Government. Some of them had never lived anywhere but the Jungle and were raised there, taught how to use weapons and farm and build their own society. In the past when you asked a Colombian how to solve the violence problem in South America and end conflicts like that between the FARC and the Colombian Government, they would say "Legalize Drugs". Because the FARC were in the Jungle, and since drugs are illegal, they took that market and funded a lot of stuff that way.
The Contras (Nicaragua)
If the FARC are not what you think of when you think of Guerilla Warfare, then it is probably the Contras you think of. The Contras were the ones involved in the Iran-Contra deal. The CIA book "Psychological Operations in Guerilla Warfare" was written by the CIA for the Nicaraguan Democratic Forces (The Contra, or "The Counter-Revolution"),in order to fight the Communism that was spreading across South America, which is still largely Communist.
“Of all that befell the Romans,
the cause was one man and one mind.
When Hannibal came to Rome they banned the word "Peace" and the phrase "Hannibal is at the gates" was coined, which is still used today.
Hannibal was a North African, from an Empire which included Sicily (Sicily is not far from Africa), before the time Rome was a great Empire, at this time ROME (the SPRQ) was basically Fraternities that believed they were the decedents of Hercules, etc, or that Hercules had established their town along his route, or something like that. Hannibal's primary God was Hercules, and he was the son of a Punic Carthaginian General named Hamilcar Barca (Barca meaning "Thunder", not everyone had last names). And to kind of explain how dramatic their tactics were, one of Hannibal's brother's name was Mago, and he was a Commander in the Carthaginian Military, as well as a Fire Eater, and both titles are basically equally important to who he was in their society and military. They used Elephants, etc. When Hannibal was young Carthage lost the sea to Rome, and Sicily to Rome. His father raised him in a mountain base, full of mercenaries, as the last stand against the Roman forces. The Carthaginian Council leaders sent Hamilcar to negotiate with Rome knowing he would not give at all. And one day Hannibal, as a child, asked Hamilcar if he would take him on an oversees campaign, and he took Hannibal into a sacrificial chamber to Ba'alhammon and held him over a fire, and told him to swear to never be a friend to Rome, which he did. Hamilcar later established Nuevo Carthago (New Carthage) in the territory in Spain and France he had gotten free rights to in negotiations with Rome, this is where Hannibal really grew up most of his life that he would have remembered. When he was in his 20s he began to expand the Carthaginian reign to the local Spanish and Celtic tribes, who he had grown up around. Then attacked a city on his side of the river, laying siege and taking it, but Rome claimed it was their ally, even though it was on his side of the river. So the Romans sent an emissary to Carthage to speak with the Council, and the emissary asked for Hannibal, they said "No". Then the emissary said "In the folds of my toga I hold peace and war, which will you have" , they took a side bar to discuss, and came back saying, "You choose", and he said "Then war it will be". Instead of simply taking boats from Africa to Sicily, he used a route that had been planned out by his brother in law Hasdrubal, which was also the path Hercules was said to have taken through Europe across the Alps through Italy. So he took that path, employing the Tribes and Roman defectors, and taking over cities until he got to Rome. He told them that he was there to liberate them from Rome, and not to destroy Rome but to destroy its ability to make War.
Battle of the Trebia, December 218 BC
Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground. His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the Romans could take steps to check the rebellion. Publius Cornelius Scipio was the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal (he was also Scipio Africanus' father). He had not expected Hannibal to make an attempt to cross the Alps, since the Romans were prepared to fight the war in the Iberian Peninsula. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal. He succeeded, through prompt decision and speedy movement, in transporting his army to Italy by sea in time to meet Hannibal. Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in the Battle of Ticinus. Here, Hannibal forced the Romans to evacuate the plain of Lombardy, by virtue of his superior cavalry. The victory was minor, but it encouraged the Gauls and Ligurians to join the Carthaginian cause, whose troops bolstered his army back to around 40,000 men. Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father. Scipio retreated across the Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army mostly intact.
The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley. Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the Senate had ordered Consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal. Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march to reinforce Scipio. He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of supplies for his men. But this gain was not without loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia. There Hannibal had an opportunity to show his masterful military skill at the Trebia in December of the same year, after wearing down the superior Roman infantry, when he cut it to pieces with a surprise attack and ambush from the flanks.
Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 BC
Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him had abated. In the spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to find a more reliable base of operations farther south. Gnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius (the new consuls of Rome) were expecting Hannibal to advance on Rome, and they took their armies to block the eastern and western routes that Hannibal could use.
The only alternative route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno. This area was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season. Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest way to central Italy. Polybius claims that Hannibal's men marched for four days and three nights, "through a land that was under water", suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep. He crossed without opposition over both the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno, but he lost a large part of his force in the marshy lowlands of the Arno.
He arrived in Etruria in the spring of 217 BC and decided to lure the main Roman army under Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the region that Flaminius had been sent to protect. As Polybius recounts, "he [Hannibal] calculated that, if he passed the camp and made a descent into the district beyond, Flaminius (partly for fear of popular reproach and partly of personal irritation) would be unable to endure watching passively the devastation of the country but would spontaneously follow him... and give him opportunities for attack." At the same time, Hannibal tried to break the allegiance of Rome's allies by proving that Flaminius was powerless to protect them. Despite this, Flaminius remained passively encamped at Arretium. Hannibal marched boldly around Flaminius' left flank, unable to draw him into battle by mere devastation, and effectively cut him off from Rome (thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history). He then advanced through the uplands of Etruria, provoking Flaminius into a hasty pursuit and catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus. There Hannibal destroyed Flaminius' army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes, killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene). This was the most costly ambush that the Romans ever sustained until the Battle of Carrhae against the Parthian Empire.
Hannibal had now disposed of the only field force that could check his advance upon Rome, but he realized that, without siege engines, he could not hope to take the capital. He preferred to exploit his victory by entering into central and southern Italy and encouraging a general revolt against the sovereign power.
The Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as their dictator. Departing from Roman military traditions, Fabius adopted the strategy named after him, avoiding open battle while placing several Roman armies in Hannibal's vicinity in order to watch and limit his movements.
Hannibal ravaged Apulia but was unable to bring Fabius to battle, so he decided to march through Samnium to Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. Fabius closely followed Hannibal's path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn out of the defensive. This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed that it was a form of cowardice.
Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania, but Fabius had ensured that all the passes were blocked out of Campania. To avoid this, Hannibal deceived the Romans into thinking that the Carthaginian army was going to escape through the woods. As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and then made their way through the pass unopposed. Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. Smelling a stratagem (rightly), he stayed put. For the winter, Hannibal found comfortable quarters in the Apulian plain. What Hannibal achieved in extricating his army was, as Adrian Goldsworthy puts it, "a classic of ancient generalship, finding its way into nearly every historical narrative of the war and being used by later military manuals". This was a severe blow to Fabius' prestige and soon after this his period of dictatorial power ended.
Battle of Cannae, Spring 216 BC
Hannibal watched the Roman army from a distance as it advanced on him, the wind whipped dirt into the air, but his men stood with their backs facing the breeze, so the Romans would get the bulk of the disadvantage.
One of Hannibal's officers, a man named Gisgo, shook his head in defeat and said to Hannibal: “It is a most amazing thing to see such a number of men”
Hannibal turned to him and said: “I'll tell you something more amazing. In all those numbers, there is not one among them named Gisgo”.
This bolstered the spirits of his army, and they needed it. They were made up of about 45,000 men, and they were about to engage 85,000 men.
In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain. By capturing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial sources of supply. Once the Roman Senate resumed their consular elections in 216 BC, they appointed Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus as consuls. In the meantime, the Romans hoped to gain success through sheer strength and weight of numbers, and they raised a new army of unprecedented size, estimated by some to be as large as 100,000 men, but more likely around 50-80,000.
The Romans and allied legions resolved to confront Hannibal and marched southward to Apulia. They eventually found him on the left bank of the Aufidus River, and encamped six miles (10 km) away. On this occasion, the two armies were combined into one, the consuls having to alternate their command on a daily basis. Varro was in command on the first day, a man of reckless and hubristic nature (according to Livy) and determined to defeat Hannibal. Hannibal capitalized on the eagerness of Varro and drew him into a trap by using an envelopment tactic. This eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the combat area. Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in a semicircle in the center with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse. The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan mercenaries on the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks. The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible. Hannibal's chief cavalry commander Maharbal led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, and they shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them. Hannibal's Iberian and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind. As a result, the Roman army was hemmed in with no means of escape.
Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal managed to surround and destroy all but a small remnant of his enemy, despite his own inferior numbers. Depending upon the source, it is estimated that 50,000-70,000 Romans were killed or captured Among the dead were Roman Consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, as well as two consuls for the preceding year, two quaestors, twenty-nine out of the forty-eight military tribunes, and an additional eighty senators (at a time when the Roman Senate was composed of no more than 300 men, this constituted 25%–30% of the governing body). This makes the battle one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of Ancient Rome, and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history (in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day).
After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower. As a result, Hannibal fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war. It is believed that his refusal to bring the war to Rome itself was due to a lack of commitment from Carthage of men, money, and materiel — principally siege equipment. Whatever the reason, the choice prompted Maharbal to say, "Hannibal, you know how to gain a victory, but not how to use one."
As a result of this victory, many parts of Italy joined Hannibal's cause. As Polybius notes, "How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae, than those that preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome's allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman Power."[During that same year, the Greek cities in Sicily were induced to revolt against Roman political control, while Macedonian King Philip V pledged his support to Hannibal – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome. Hannibal also secured an alliance with newly appointed Hieronymus of Syracuse. It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome. Instead, he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses that still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 BC was the defection of certain Italian territories, including Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal made his new base. However, only a few of the Italian city-states defected to him that he had expected to gain as allies.