Saturday, April 29, 2017

How to Make Marijuana Stronger (and other Herbs too)

There have been many articles about this subject, but none that have all of the information contained in this article. Many people at one point or another wonder if they can have the same feeling as their first time smoking Marijuana again, with time slowing down, and extreme giggling, etc, without having to take a long break from using Marijuana, and the answer is, yes. There are various ways to potentiate THC. Potentiating is different than piggy backing, in that potentiaters are primers, while piggy backing is adding one thing to another. Basically, Synergy effect V Combination effect. This article is about Synergy, not Combination effects. Potentiation/Priming, not piggy backing.

Terpenes. The most common thing you may find when researching this topic is Mangoes. There are many articles that exist that state that Mangoes will make Marijuana stronger. The reason for this is because of Terpenes, specifically a Terpene called Myrcene. Terpenes are an entire subject unto themselves, and are actually a big part of some new Medical Marijuana "technology" such as live Resin, which is Hash with Terpenes added to it (because most Terpenes are lost in the vacuum stage of high grade extractions). Terpenes are what give Marijuana its smell, and flavors, but Myrcene, and possibly other terpenes, actually have an effect on how THC works in your body. Myrcene is slightly analgesic and is known to strengthen the effects of Marijuana. Lemonene, another Terpene, has also been shown to strengthen the effects of Marijuana. For example, when Lemonene is used to extract THC from Marijuana, and the resulting liquid is left to evaporate, Lemonene cannot be completely evaporated and so leaves a residue of itself in the hash, and Lemonene extractions have won awards for their strength in comparison to other extractions. And while Myrcene is present in Mangoes, and drinking Mango juice could possibly give you enough Myrcene to potentiate THC. The best way to potentiate with Terpenes is Lemon Grass, Lemon Grass can be bought cheap and in bulk, and contains both Lemonene and Myrcene in large amounts. It can be added to a Marijuana extraction and extracted right along side it, or made into butter with Marijuana. This method achieves much much better results than Mangoes. Myrcene can also be found in beer, as it is what gives Hops their smell and flavor.

THCv. This is actually a Cannabinoid, similar to THC, CBD, etc. THCv is found in African Marijuana strains, such as Durban Poison and Malawi Gold. THCv is an Antagonist of the CB1 receptor, meaning that it may have effects similar to THC but is said to be more psychedelic and strengthen the effects of THC, and is believed to possibly be the reason for "One hitter quitter" strains. It is also a CB2 Partial Agonist, which means that it does not cause munchies and can actually decrease appetite.

Kava Kava. This is not Kratom, I know the names are completely different but many people confused Kava Kava with Kratom. They are 2 completely different things. Kava Kava, or just Kava, is a relative of the Pepper plant and can be found in Hawaii and on a few other islands. It has become so wide spread that many large cities in America even have Kava bars, where you can drink Kava. Kava mainly contains molecules known as Kavalactones, but also contains a Cannabinoid called Yangonin. Yangonin is a very little known Cannabinoid, but can have a strong synergy with THC. Kava when mixed with water and consumed like coffee or tea, is a very bitter substance that tastes a lot like dirt water, and has the signature effect of making your mouth go numb (actual numbness, not because of the horrible flavor). It is sold as capsules at most pharmacies over the counter, and can either be bought as capsules or put into capsules by hand. Extractions can be made from Kava just like from Marijuana or Lemon Grass, but you do not want to smoke Kava as it has a horrible flavor and has a taste reminiscent of Chlorine. The best way to consume it is in a capsule, but for the whole mouth numbing experience, you would drink it as a tea.

Uziza. This is a plant from Nigeria and few people outside of Nigeria even know that it exists. It is a relative of Pepper and used to be used all around Europe, but somehow fell out of popular use as a table spice, and is now mainly found only in its home country of Nigeria. In Nigeria it is used to make a soup that increases your appetite and is fed to people when they are sick, and it is actually a CB2 receptor Antagonist. Meaning that when it increases your appetite, it is using the same route to do that as Marijuana does when you get the munchies. It is said not to have any effects on the CB1 receptor, but there are also very few people in the world that have ever smoked it. But smoked, it does seem to cause a short buzz. And many people say that Tobacco increases the effects of Marijuana, but if anything like Tobacco is going to do that, it would be Uziza. Uziza can either be made into a soup, a tea, or smoked and can be mixed in a joint with Marijuana. It is inexpensive compared to both Marijuana and Tobacco. The main molecule that gives Uziza its effects is a Terpene called Caryophyllene, which has actually been approved by the FDA for use as a food additive.

Wild Dagga. This is a plant from South Africa, where it is considered to be very similar to Marijuana. Marijuana is called Dagga, this is called Wild Dagga. It is an orange flower in the mint family and contains a molecule called Leonurine which has various medical uses and is similar to (not similar enough to be a replacement for though) THC. When used together with THC there is a Synergy that increases the effects of THC. A relative of Wild Dagga, called Marihuanilla (Spanish for "Little Marijuana") or Siberian Motherwort, can also be used to create a Synergy with Marijuana.

Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitors. Tylenol is probably the most well known Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitor, but no one knows that it is one. Tylenol breaks down into various Metabolites, including one called AM404, which is a Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitor. The way these work is similar to SSRIs, but they instead of working on Serotonin, they work on Cannabinoids. The reason they work is because your body has natural Endocannabinoids, such as 2-AG and Anandamide (which can be found in Sea Urchin Roe/Eggs, as well as Truffles). A Reuptake Inhibitor works by not allowing your body to throw away any extra Cannabinoids that are in your brain, meaning that your natural Endocannabinoids, and any Cannabinoids that you add to it, have to go to your CB1 and CB2 receptors. Usually if your body detected that there was too much THC or 2-AG or Anandamide in your brain, it would dump (Reuptake) the rest, and put it into your bloodsteam so that it could be taken somewhere outside the brain. But in the presence of a Reuptake Inhibitor, Endocannabinoids and Cannabinoids will stay there until they find a receptor to attach to.

Other Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitors:
UCM 707
LY 2183240
LY 2318912

Alcohol. Many people may have experienced "the Spins" at some point from smoking Marijuana after drinking too much Alcohol, but it turns out that the Spins are not actually something that happens just because Alcohol and Marijuana are mixed. A study was done by the AACC that actually showed that any amount of Alcohol in the bloodstream, actually strengthened the bodies ability to absorb THC, meaning that a stronger effect is achieved with less Marijuana.

Syrian Rue. The seeds of the Syrian Rue plant contain various Harmala Alkaloids which act as MAOIs. MAOIs are what are used in Ayahuasca to make DMT active orally, and can be used to effect the way other substances break down in the body as well. Consuming Syrian Rue seeds at least 45 minutes before smoking or eating Marijuana can strengthen the effects. There are many other MAOI containing plants, such as Passionflower or the Ayahuasca Vine, but Syrian Rue seed contains the most. Do not eat cheese with MAOIs as it can be dangerous.

Adducts and Esters. An Adduct is the creation of a new molecule by combining 2 whole molecules in such a way that both molecules are still intact, but are now combined into 1 new molecule (similar to how 2 Amino Acids  come together to create a Peptide). An Adduct of THC could possibly have different effects than THC. Esters are formed by Carboxylic Acid structures (meaning any part of a Molecule which looks like an Amino Acid) combining with Acids. Examples would be THC-O-Phosphate and THC-O-Acetate, and while THC cannot be injected into the bloodsteam, the Esters of THC can be, which would allow THC to be a viable candidate for use in Hospital IVs and not just as a smoked medicine.

CYP450 Enzymes. Not much, if any, research has been done regarding CYP450 Enzymes and Marijuana, but CYP450 Enzymes are the next frontier of Pharmaceuticals. CYP450 Enzymes can be effected similarly to how MAOIs work, and the whole process is best understood through the example of Anti-Oxidants. Everyone has heard "Pomegranate is an Anti-Oxidant" or whatever else is an Anti-Oxidant. What this means is that it is actually effecting the way that your body metabolizes things. Similar to the way DMT is broken down into inactive molecules when taken orally under normal circumstances, but becomes active when taken orally after consuming an MAOI, the effects of any molecule can potentially be changed by altering the way it is broken down. Another example is the Tylenol example, Tylenol breaks down into AM404. This happens because your stomach contains Hydrocholoric Acid, meaning that there are a bunch of Hydrogen atoms in your stomach waiting to react with Oxygen atoms, and as these reactions happen, molecules are turned into different molecules, which is how Tylenol becomes AM404. An example of how CYP450 Enzymes work exactly would be Grapefruit juice. You may have heard of, or experienced, a medicine which warns "DO NOT TAKE WITH GRAPEFRUIT JUICE". This is because Grapefruit juice actually effects your CYP450 Enzymes, and causes certain medicines to not break down when digested, which can then result in death. And it is very possible that there are methods which can be found that can cause THC to be broken down differently. Tumeric has an effect of CYP450 Enzymes and has been said to effect the strength of Marijuana.

Here is how it works

CYP Enzymes (Drug Metabolism, etc)
Induction and Inhibition (Anti-Oxidants, etc)

CYP450 Enzymes may seem like something that would only be effected by some exotic medicine, but just like how some of these Enzymes are effected by Grapefruit juice, they can all be changed by simple foods and things that can be found in a spice cabinet. Here are the things that effect CYP450 Enzymes.

Graviola- 5-HT1a Agonist
Black Cohosh- 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D & 5-HT7 Binding
C. Foetida L.- 5-HT1A Agonist
Yokukansan- 5-HT1A Agonist
DMT hits all of these, and can be found in tons of plants.

Black Cohosh- 5-HT1D
maybe Rhodiola rosea, Albizia lebbeck & Albizia julibrissin.

5-HT1 Receptor Agonists:
Turmeric, Ginger, Ginko Bilboa, Lemon Essential Oil, Rauwolfia, Valerian, Yohimbe

Elmicin & Myristicin (in Nutmeg)- 5-HT2A Agonist
Estragole (in Sweet Basil)- 5-HT2A Agonist
Safrole (in Sassafras)- 5-HT2A Agonist

Cinnamon Bark- CYP2A6 & CYP2E1 Inhibitor (It will deplete your liver's Glutithione) Taken 1 Hour before Allybenzene,
Clove Leaf- CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP1A1 & CYP1B1 Inhibitor
German Chamomile- CYP1A2 Inhibitor (Caffeine may also do this)
GoldenSseal & Echinacea purpurea very effectively do the same thing.
Black seed oil, 50% EGCG, Valerian root oil, Pomegranate, Vitamin B9, 40% Ellagic extract, Rooibos 20% Gallic acid extract, Rutin, B3 & Kudzu
Star Anise Extract or B9 for CYP2C9 Induction

Anethole, Apiol, Asarone, Carpacin, Chavibetol, Chavicol, Dillapiole, Eugenol, Isoeugenol, Isosafrole, Methyl Eugenol, Methyl Isoeugenol,

Caffeyl Alcohol, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-Cyno-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, Ethyl Cinnamate, Lignin, 2,4-
Methlenedioxypropiophenone, Neoflavonoids, Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, Phenylpropanoic acid, Phloretic acid, Rhododendrin & Suberin.

NMDA Receptor Plants:
Uncaria Rhynchophyllia
Psychotria Colorata
Huperzia Serrata

Several allylbenzenes have been proven to form up to 3 alkaloid metabolites after ingestion by several animals.[They do not form amphetamines in vivo as has been speculated in the past. The alkaloids detected in animal urine are tertiary aminopropiophenones of 3 possible subtypes: dimethylamines, piperidines, and pyrrolidines.

The allylbenzene elemicin has been proven to form all 3 different alkaloid metabolites after ingestion in animals by analyzing urine using gas-liquid chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

Safrole is also proven to form all three alkaloid metabolites after ingestion.

Myristicin appears to only form piperidines and pyrrolidines. Dimethylamines of myristicin have not been detected.

Allylbenzene, from which all allylbenzenes are derived, forms piperidine and dimethylamine alkaloids.

Propenylbenzene and its derivatives (asarone, anethole, etc.) do not form alkaloid metabolites.

Some people have reported Psychedelic effects from Mixing just Coffee, Almond, Cinnamon, Vanilla and Nutmeg.

"One of the banes of the archivist is having to choose one pattern of organization over another. The book store owned by a language scholar will have the German poets and playwrights and novelists here, and the French ones over there. Next door, the book store is run by a letters scholar, and the poetry of the world is here, and the plays of the world are there, regardless of the language of origin. The same obtains with spices, and essential oils, and amphetamines. The spice cabinet is a rich source of chemical treasures, each source plant containing a host of com-pounds, some of which are true essential oils. And the next spice from the next plant has some of the same components and some new ones. Does one organize by plant (spice or herb) or by essential oil (amphetamine)? Let's do it by the ring substitution pattern of the amphetamine, and gather the spices and oils as a secondary collection.
(1) The 4-methoxy pattern. The pivotal essential oil is 4-allylanisole, or methyl chavicol, or estragole (called esdragol in the old literature). This allyl compound is found in turpentine, anise, fennel, bay, tarragon, and basil. Its smell is light, and reminiscent of fennel. The propenyl analogue is called anethole, or anise camphor, and it is found in both anise and camphor. It is a waxy solid, and has a very intense smell of anise or fennel. At low concentrations, it is sweet, as in magnolia blossoms, where it is also found. The drinks that turn cloudy with water dilution (Pernod-like liqueurs, and ouzo and roki), are heavy with it, since it was the natural flavoring in the original absinthe. That drink was very popular in the last century, as an intoxicant which produced an altered state of consciousness beyond that which could be ascribed to alcohol alone. It contained wormwood, which proved to be neurologically damaging. The flavorings, such as anethole, are still big things in synthetic liqueurs such as vermouth. Old anethole, when exposed to air and light, gets thick and sticky and yellowish, and becomes quite disagreeable to taste. Maybe it is polymerizing, or maybe oxidizing to stuff that dimerizes. Whatever. These changes are why old spices in the cabinet are best discarded. And adding ammonia to any of these natural product oils produces, in principle, 4-methoxyamphetamine, 4-MA.

(2) The 3,4-dimethoxy pattern. The main actor here is methyleugenol, or 4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene. This is located in almost every item in the spice cabinet. It is in citronella, bay (which is laurel, which is myrtle), pimiento, allspice, pepper, tree-tea oil, and on and on. It has a faint smell of cloves, and when dilute is immediately mistaken for carnations. The propenyl analogue is, not unreasonably, methylisoeugenol, a bit more scarce, and seems to always be that little minor peak in any essential oil analysis. The compounds missing that methyl group on the 4-oxygen are famous. The allyl material is eugenol, 4-allylguaiacol, and it is in cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, sassafras and myrrh. You taste it and it burns. You smell it and think immediately of cloves. And its property as an anesthetic, in the form of a clove, is well known in the folk-treatment of toothaches. Actually, flowers of clove (the gillyflower, like the carnation) are the small, pointy things that decorate baked hams and, when stuck into apples, make pomander balls. This anesthetic property has recently led to a drug abuse fad, called clove cigarettes. Very strong, very flavorful, and very corrosive things from Southeast Asia. The eugenol that is present numbs the throat, and allows many strong cigarettes to be smoked without pain. The propenyl analogue is isoeugenol, with a smell that is subtle but very long lasting, used more in soaps and perfumes than in foods. The amine addition to the methyleugenol world produces 3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine, or 3,4-DMA. The isomer with the other methyl group missing is chavibetol (3-hydroxy-4-

methoxyallylbenzene) and is found in the pepper leaf that is used with betel nut. A couple of positional rearrangement isomers of methyleugenol are known in the plant world. The 2,4-isomer is called osmorrhizole, and the conjugated form is isoosmorrhizole or nothosmyrnol; both are found in carrot-like vegetables. They, with ammonia, would give 2,4-DMA. And the 3,5-dimethoxyallylbenzene isomer from artemisia (a pungent herb commonly called mugwort) and from sage, would give rise to 3,5-DMA. This is an unexplored isomer which would be both an antidote for opium as well as a stimulant, if the classical reputation of mugwort is transferred to the amphetamine.
(3) The 3,4-methylenedioxy pattern. One of the most famous essential oils is safrole, or 4-allyl-1,2-
methylenedioxybenzene. This is the mainstay of sassafras oil, and it and its conjugated isomer isosafrole have a smell that is immediately familiar: root beer! These are among the most widely distributed essential oils, being present in most of the spices, including the heavies such as cinnamon and nutmeg. I am not aware of the 2,3-isomer ever having been found in nature. Adding ammonia to either would give MDA.
(4) The 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy pattern. The parent compound is myristicin, 5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-
methylenedioxybenzene, and the source of this is nutmeg (or the botanically parallel material, mace). The nutmeg is the seed of the tree Myristica fragrans and mace is the fibrous covering of the seed. The two spices are virtually identical as to their chemical composition. Myristicin and the conjugated isomer isomyristicin are also found in parsley oil, and in dill. This was the oil that was actually shown to be converted to MMDA by the addition of ammonia by passage through an in vitro liver preparation. So here is the major justification for the equation between the essential oils and the Essential Amphetamines. Care must be taken to make an exact distinction between myristicin (this essential oil) and myristin (the fat) which is really trimyristin or glyceryl trimyristate from nutmeg and coconut. This is the fat from myristic acid, the C-14 fatty acid, and these two similar names are often interchanged even in the scientific literature.
(5) The 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy pattern. This is the second of the three natural methoxy methylenedioxy orientations. Croweacin is 2-methoxy-3,4-
methylenedioxyallylbenzene, and it takes its name from the binomial for the plant Eriostemon crowei from the worlds of rue and the citrus plants. It corresponds to the essential amphetamine MMDA-3a. This oil is found in plants of the Family Rutaceae. My memories of this area of botany are of Ruta graveolens, the common rue, whose small leaves smelled to me, for all the world, like cat urine. This plant has always fascinated me because of a most remarkable recipe that I was given by a very, very conservative fellow-club member, one evening, after rehearsal. He told me of a formula that had provided him with the most complete relief from arthritic pain he had ever known. It was a native decoction he had learned of many years eariler, when he was traveling in Mexico. One took equal quantities of three plants, Ruta graveolens (or our common rue), Rosmarinus officinalis (better known as rosemary), and Cannabis sativa (which is recognized in many households simply as marijuana). Three plants all known in folklore, rue as a symbol for repentance, rosemary as a symbol of remembrance, and pot, well, I guess it is a symbol of a lot of things to a lot of people. Anyway, equal quantities of these three plants are allowed to soak in a large quantity of rubbing alcohol for a few weeks. Then the alcoholic extracts are clarified, and allowed to evaporate in the open air to a thick sludge. This then was rubbed on the skin, where the arthritis was troublesome, and always rubbed in the direction of the extremity. It was not into, but onto the body that it was applied. All this from a very conservative Republican friend!
The methoxy-methylenedioxy pattern is also found in nature with the 2,4,5-orientation pattern. The allyl-2,4,5-isomer is called asaricin. It, and its propenyl-isomer, carpacin, are from the Carpano tree which grows in the Solomon Islands. All these plants are used in folk medicine. These two systems, the 2,3,4- and the 2,4,5-orientations, potentially give rise, with ammonia, to MMDA-3a and MMDA-2.

(6) The 3,4,5-trimethoxy pattern. Elemicin is the well studied essential oil, 5-allyl-1,2,3-
trimethoxybenzene, primarily from the oil of elemi. It is, like myristicin, a component of the Oil of Nutmeg, but it is also found in several of the Oils of Camphor, and in the resin of the Pili in the Philippines. This tree is the source of the Oil of Elemi. I had found a trace component in nutmeg many years ago that proved to be 5-methoxyeugenol, or elemicin without the 4-methyl group; it is also present in the magnolia plant. The aldehyde that corresponds to this is syringaldehyde, and its prefix has been spun into many natural products. Any natural product with a syring somewhere in it has a hydroxy between two methoxys. The amphetamine base from elemicin or isoelemicin would be TMA, the topic of this very recipe.
(7) The 2,4,5-trimethoxy pattern. There is an essential oil called asarone that is 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-
propenylbenzene. It is the trans- or alpha-isomer, and the cis-isomer is known as beta-asarone. It is the isomerization analogue of the much more rare 1-allyl-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene, gamma-asarone, or euasarone, or sekishone. Asarone is the major component of Oil of Calamus obtained from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus, the common Sweet Flag that grows wild on the edges of swamps throughout North America, Europe, and Asia. It has been used as a flavoring of liqueurs and, as almost every other plant known to man, has been used as a medicine. In fact, in Manitoba this plant was called Rat-root by the Cree Indians in the Lake Winnipeg area known as New Iceland, and Indian-root by the Icelandic pioneers. It was used externally for the treatment of wounds, and internally for most illnesses. There apparently is no report of central effects. The corresponding propanone, acoramone (or 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetone), is also present in Oil of Calamus. The styrene that corresponds to asarone is found in a number of plants, and is surprisingly toxic to brine shrimp. The older literature describes an allyl-trimethoxy benzene called calamol, but it has never been pinned down as to structure. The isolation of gamma-asarone or euasarone from Oil of Xixin (from wild ginger) has given rise to a potential problem of nomenclature. One of the Genus names associated with wild ginger is Asiasarum which looks very much like the name asarone, which comes from the Genus Acorus. And a second Genus of medical plants also called wild ginger is simply called Asarum. There is an Asarum forbesi from central China, and it is known to give a pleasant smell to the body. And there is Asarum seiboldi which is largely from Korea and Manchuria. It has many medical uses, including the treatment of deafness, epilepsy, and rheumatism. The amphetamine that would arise from this natural treasure chest is TMA-2.
( 8 ) The 2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-
methylenedioxy pattern. The parent allyl benzene is apiole (with a final "e") or parsley camphor, and it is the major component of parsley seed oil. Its conjugated isomer is called isoapiole, and they are valuable as the chemical precurors to the amination product, DMMDA. Whereas both of these essential oils are white solids, there is a green oily liquid that had been broadly used years ago in medicine, called green, or liquid apiol (without the final "e"). It comes from the seeds of parsley by ether extraction, and when the chlorophyll has been removed, it is known as yellow apiol. With the fats removed by saponification and distillation, the old term for the medicine was apiolin. I would assume that any of these would give rise to white, crystalline apiole on careful distillation, but I have never tried to do it. The commercial Oil of Parsley is so readily available.
(9) The 2,3-dimethoxy-4,5-
methylenedioxy pattern. The second of the three tetraoxygenated essential oils is 1-allyl-2,3-dimethoxy-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene, commonly called dillapiole and it comes, not surprisingly, from the oils of any of the several dill plants around the world. It is a thick, almost colorless liquid, but its isomerization product, isodillapiole, is a white crystalline product which melts sharply. This, by the theoretical addition of ammonia, gives DMMDA-2.
(10) The tetramethoxy pattern. The third and last of the tetra-oxygenated essential oils, is 1-allyl-2,3,4,5-
tetramethoxybenzene. This is present as a minor component in the oil of parsley, but it is much more easily obtained by synthesis. It, and its iso-compound, and the amination product, are discussed under the last of theTen Essential Amphetamines, TA."

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