Monday, May 15, 2017

THCv is the new CBD

This article is going to explain a lot of things very quickly, so that those who already understand and those who don't know anything about any of this can all understand.

Within the past few years (5-10 years) CBD has become more Politically palatable and more "morally" acceptable than outright Marijuana and THC legalization, medical or recreational (or Religious). CBD is less Psychoactive, meaning that it has medicinal benefits but less noticeable mental effects (this has even been misrepresented as "CBD is medical, THC is recreational", which is incorrect in that CBD can help with seizures etc, but you need THC for tumors and Cancer). An example of how common these CBD laws are would be Texas, Texas now has the Compassionate Care Act, and "Low THC Marijuana" is legal. This doesn't mean brick weed, though it could be interpreted that way, it is meant to say "High CBD Low THC Marijuana". Texas is supposed to have dispensaries by 2018, but will not provide prescriptions for Chronic pain. There are Marijuana strains such as Charlotte's Web, which contain high CBD and low THC, and various "Charlotte's Web Law"s have been enacted across America. More than 25 States have enacted Medical Laws at this time.
http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/HS/htm/HS.487.htm

Here is a list of CBD strains. At this point if you grow a CBD strain you are part of a large group that includes nearly 50 states across America, and growing a CBD strain could soon become a thing that allows you to make money in many states across America as they open dispensaries, and the dispensaries search for genetics. (But THCv is coming up next and no one knows about it yet)

Harlequin
Ringo's Gift
Sweet and Sour Widow
Stephen Hawking Kush
ACDC
Cannatonic
Harle-Tsu
Canna-Tsu



https://hcplive.s3.amazonaws.com/v1_media/_image/Marijuana_Map.png
That has been going on for a few years now. And THC means Tetrahydrocannabidiol, while CBD just means Cannabidiol. So THC is TH-CBD.

The following images show how similar the various Cannabinoids are.

http://digipathlabs.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/thc-synthesis.jpg











http://michiganmedicalmarijuana.org/uploads/gallery/album_1162/gallery_34991_1162_41617.png


THCv is common in African Marijuana strains and has yet to be commonly seen in dispensaries, or commonly understood to exist on the shelves of the Medical Marijuana community. Some dispensaries may have an African strain or a few African strains, but they are not yet common. And there are still very few cross bred Africa strains, just as an example, Durban Poison X White Widow or something like that, there is no common strain with cross bred African genetics, and Durban Poison is probably the most widespread Africa strain, but most people don't even realize that it is an African strain. If you don't know what Landrace is, now is a good time to get African Landrace seeds, this is currently a completely untapped market for breeding. Most people buy Femenized seeds and think of seeds found in bags of reggie are useless, but you can actually breed your reggie seeds with other seeds, and when you buy seeds you can buy regular seeds instead of femenized seeds and breed those. In order to make femenized seeds you just add silver to the soil of your grow, or rub colloidial silver all over your plants, and they will become hermaphrodites and they will create femenized seeds. But if you take a male and a female plant, say Durban Poison and some kind of Kush. So Dubran X Kush. Then you breed the Durban X Kush with the Durban. So you have a plant that is 25% Kush and 75% Durban, then you have a  plant with selected genetics, and you can select whatever strain you want to do that with.

Here are the Medical uses for THCv:

http://mcrc-asbl.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Beanpot_Cannabinoids-Infographic-Update-02-27-14.jpg http://potdeli.webs.com/Weedmaps%20Cannabinoid%20Chart.jpg


Following is a List of African Strains. These strains are still extremely rare, and some may actually require a person to go to Africa and buy Marijuana with seeds in it in order to find:

Durban Poison
Moroccan
Apondo Mystic
Coffee Gold
Durban Magic
Mozambica
Swazi Gold
Transkei
Nigerian 99
Swazi 99
Angola Veroe
Etiopian
Congo (Zaire)
Congo #1
Mali
Senegal
Cabo Verde
Ghana
Guinea
Lesotho
Madagascar
Swazi Red
Jahwi's Joy (Ghana)
Senegal
Angola x Banghi
Lesotho x Uzbeki
Misty Kei
Zim-Licious
Sotho Heights
Malawi Gold
Malawi Gold x Columbian Gold


If anyone reading this does not understand Strains, an example of a Strain that everyone knows about is Kush, you have probably heard of Kush. Kush comes from the Hindu Kush mountains in India. The word Ganja comes from the Ganges river, and the word Indica means "From India". Most people think that Marijuana comes from Native American Indians, but it actually comes from Asian Indians (India) and Africa. The 2 primary Species of Marijuana are Indica and Sativa, there is also a 3rd called Rudaralis. From these 3 species comes thousands of Strains, many strain originating from the Mixture of 2 Landrace (National/Regional) strains. Amsterdam is a mecca of Marijuana strains and Coffee strains because the Dutch were a large part of the British Empire (which can be botanically indicated by tea. Tea is British, it is Chinese and it is Indian.). But the Dutch seem to have kept more.


Kush Strains. Kush is now a well established strain around the world, with many crossbreeds in regular circulation and they are mostly easy to find:

Chitral (Pakistan)
Carnage
Pink Kush
Tahoe OG Kush
Strawberry Diesel Kush
Snoop’s Church
Bubba Kush
Purple Bubba Kush
Kandy Kush
Purple Kush
Pineapple Kush
Blackberry Kush
Headband
OG Kush
Violator Kush
Organic Purple Kush
Champagne Kush
Blueberry Kush
Super OG Master Kush
Blackberry Kush
Venom OG Kush
Fraggle Rock
Snoop’s Master Kush
Super OG Master Kush
Redwood Kush
Sticky Icky OG Kush
Moonlight OG Kush
Yoda OG Kush
3 kings
Black Rhino OG Kush
Obama OG Kush
OG Darth Vader
OG Michael Phelps
Runuponyah
God’s Gift


So basically right now:

Kush is a well established recreational, medical and Religious Marijuana family.

CBD is a safe bet medically and commercially and is a pretty common Cannabinoid, that is pretty widely accepted.

THCv is hard to find, not well established in any community, and has medical value outside of the established medical strains.

THCv X Kush and THCv X CBD is basically uncharted waters. And there are many other strains. Ex: Mexico is Sativa strains, White Widow comes from Thai Landrace X Brazilian Landrace. Indica is short fat buds with 1 branch usually, with tons of trichs and good for making hash. Sativa has branches and long buds. CBD can usually be found in Indica, while THCv is  can be found in Sativa, but not all Indicas or Sativas are high in these.

If anyone is confused about how 3 Species of Marijuana can create so many strains. Look at Tomatoes, or Onions or Grapes.

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/a9/0d/b1/a90db1c89b58602dde59e069e8262ef4.jpg
https://previews.123rf.com/images/petrabarz/petrabarz1205/petrabarz120500116/13553327-onion-varieties-Stock-Photo.jpg

 http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-18z_Ek1Oz4M/UHB6NGZ2TcI/AAAAAAAAB8A/wJsFtmsH45c/s1600/grapeh.jpg






Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Photovoltaics


"All perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasha (आकाश) or luminferous ether, which is acted upon by the life giving Prana (प्राण) or creative force, calling into existence, in never-ending cycles all things and phenomena."
-Nikola Tesla, Man's Greatest Achievement

Electricity


An alternator is an electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current. For reasons of cost and simplicity, most alternators use a rotating magnetic field with a stationary armature. Occasionally, a linear alternator or a rotating armature with a stationary magnetic field is used. In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the term refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines. Large 50 or 60 Hz three phase alternators in power plants generate most of the world's electric power, which is distributed by electric power grids. Alternators are also in Cars, they allow the Car to recharge its battery as it Drives, which is why if your Car battery dies you just have to drive around for a little while after getting it jumped in order for it to be able to start working regularly again, until you can get a new one.

This is a row of Alternators at a Power Plant




Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.







Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits. These fields in turn underlie modern electrical and communications technologies. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents. They are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, who published an early form of those equations between 1861 and 1862.



Electrical Engineering Books:
http://www.eletrica.ufpr.br/graduacao/e-books/Mcgraw-Hill%20-%20Principles%20And%20Applications%20Of%20Electrical%20Engineering.pdf
http://webbut.unitbv.ro/Carti%20on-line/Fizica/Nicolaide.pdf
http://iate.oac.uncor.edu/~manuel/libros/ElectroMagnetism/The%20Art%20of%20Electronics%20-%20Horowitz%20&%20Hill.pdf
http://www.fisica.net/ebooks/eletricidade/PANOFSKY%20AND%20PHILIPS%20-%20Classical%20Electricity%20and%20Magnetism%202nd.%20Ed..pdf
http://www.isu.edu.tw/upload/52/33/news/postfile_36558.pdf


Photovoltaics


Solar Technology
http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/science_nation/sprayonsolar.jsp
http://inhabitat.com/hypersolar-increases-solar-efficiency-by-300-with-magnifying-film/
"Alexandre Edmond Becquerel created the world's first photovoltaic cell in 1839. In this experiment, silver chloride was placed in an acidic solution and illuminated while connected to platinum electrodes, generating voltage and current. Because of this work, the photovoltaic effect has also been known as the "Becquerel effect". The Photovoltaic effect, a process in which two dissimilar materials in close contact produce an electrical voltage when struck by light or other radiant energy. Light striking crystals such as silicon or germanium, in which electrons are usually not free to move from atom to atom within the crystal, provides the energy needed to free some electrons from their bound condition. Free electrons cross the junction between two dissimilar crystals more easily in one direction than in the other, giving one side of the junction a negative charge and, therefore, a negative voltage with respect to the other side, just as one electrode of a battery has a negative voltage with respect to the other. The photovoltaic effect can continue to provide voltage and current as long as light continues to fall on the two materials. This current can be used to measure the brightness of the incident light or as a source of power in an electrical circuit, as in a solar power system."

Solar Powered Alternators and Generators
http://www.ewp.rpi.edu/hartford/~lindgc/Project/FinalReport.pdf
http://www.sunrnr.com/uploads/PortableSolarGenerator101.pdf
https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk3/1978/7802/780214.PDF
https://www.fkf.mpg.de/1253832/Highly-Efficient-Thermoelectronic-Conversion-of-Solar-Energy-and-Heat-into-Electric-Power.pdf
http://self.org/SELF_White_Paper_-_Solar_vs_Diesel.pdf
http://acep.uaf.edu/media/87693/SolarDieselGridHandbook.pdf
http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/handle/1903/11276/Jacobus_umd_0117N_11857.pdf;jsessionid=14FF1B6EAF77B77E067BCF6BDD8EF26F?sequence=1
https://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/26042.pdf
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/review_meeting/pdfs/prm2008_white_infinia.pdf

Quantum Dots in Photovoltaics
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/34814/InTech-Silicon_quantum_dots_for_photovoltaics_a_review.pdf
A quantum dot solar cell is a solar cell design that uses quantum dots as the absorbing photovoltaic material. It attempts to replace bulk materials such as silicon, copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) or CdTe. Quantum dots have bandgaps that are tunable across a wide range of energy levels by changing the dots' size. In bulk materials the bandgap is fixed by the choice of material(s). This property makes quantum dots attractive for multi-junction solar cells, where a variety of materials are used to improve efficiency by harvesting multiple portions of the solar spectrum.

Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaics
http://www.e-renewables.com/documents/Solar/Dye-sensitized%20photovoltaic%20cells.pdf
http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2097/12416/JeremyEssner2011.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC or DYSC) is a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells. It is based on a semiconductor formed between a photo-sensitized anode and anelectrolyte, a photoelectrochemical system. The modern version of a dye solar cell, also known as the Grätzel cell, was originally co-invented in 1988 by Brian O'Regan and Michael Grätzel at UC Berkeley and this work was later developed by the aforementioned scientists at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne until the publication of the first high efficiency DSSC in 1991.

Carrier Multiplication in Photovoltaics
http://ccccchem.uci.edu/~lawm/Generating%20Free%20Charges%20by%20Carrier%20Multiplication%20in%20Quantum%20Dots%20for%20Highly%20Efficient%20Photovoltaics.pdf
In solar cell research, carrier multiplication is the phenomenon wherein the absorption of a single photon leads to the excitation of multiple electrons from the valence band to conduction band. In the theory of a conventional solar cell, each photon is only able to excite one electron across the band gap of the semiconductor, and any excess energy in that photon is dissipated as heat. In a material with carrier multiplication, high-energy photons excite on average more than one electron across the band gap, and so in principle the solar cell can produce more useful work.

Colloids in Photovoltaics
https://books.google.com/books?id=bjvHECpuyvAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Colloidal+Semiconductor+Nanowires:+Synthesis,+Quantum-confinement-effect+google+books&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAGoVChMI0OOfh8PPyAIVCVOICh0VyQDq#v=onepage&q&f=false

Thiols in Photovoltaics
http://www.light.utoronto.ca/edit/files/publications/2008/barkhouse_2008_1.pdf

Nanocrystal Acid Treatments in Photovoltaics
https://zenodo.org/record/1133/files/post-deposition-Nanotechnology-revised2.pdf

Photoelectrochemical cells
http://gcep.stanford.edu/pdfs/hydrogen_workshop/MacQueen.pdf
Photoelectrochemical cells or PECs are solar cells that produce electrical energy or hydrogen in a process similar to the electrolysis of water.

Thermophotovoltaic Cells
Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is a direct conversion process from heat to electricity via photons. A basic thermophotovoltaic system consists of a thermal emitter and a photovoltaic diode cell.
http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~pbermel/pdf/Celanovic11.pdf
http://jxcrystals.com/publications/40PVSC_Fraas_Manuscript%207-21-2014.pdf
http://calhoun.nps.edu/bitstream/handle/10945/1170/04Jun_Davenport.pdf?sequence=1

Micro-Thermophotovoltaic Cells
http://serve.me.nus.edu.sg/shuchang/Publications/Latest%20papers%20for%20web/yang-chou-shu-li-xue-sensc%20(2003).pdf

Dual-Thermophotovoltaic Cells
http://cpb.iphy.ac.cn/fileup/PDF/2013-10-108402.pdf
Thermophotovoltaic Monolithic Interconnected Modules
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20030113048.pdf

Photovoltaic Design
http://www.uccs.edu/~rtirado/PV_Resources.pdf
Geometrical Photovoltaic design for shade tolerance
http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1303/1303.4604.pdf

Photovoltaic Materials:
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline form of silicon used for solar cells and thin-film transistors in LCD displays. Used as semiconductor material for a-Si solar cells, or thin-film silicon solar cells, it is deposited in thin films onto a variety of flexible substrates, such as glass, metal and plastic. Amorphous silicon cells generally feature low efficiency, but are one of the most environmentally friendly photovoltaic technologies, since they do not use any toxic heavy metals such as cadmium or lead.
http://www.solarhome.ru/downloads/pv/a-Si_Advantages.pdf

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic. It is a III-V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure. Gallium arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows.
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/57902.pdf
https://mundaylab.umd.edu/wp-content/uploads/JournalOfPV_20121.pdf

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium. It is mainly used as the semiconducting material in cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window. It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p-n junction solar PV cell. Typically, CdTe PV cells use a n-i-p structure.
http://www.ijcea.org/papers/290-A00012.pdf

Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a I-III-VI2 semiconductor material composed of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium. The material is a solid solution of copper indium selenide (often abbreviated "CIS") and copper gallium selenide. It has a chemical formula of CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 where the value of x can vary from 1 (pure copper indium selenide) to 0 (pure copper gallium selenide). CIGS is a tetrahedrally bonded semiconductor, with the chalcopyrite crystal structure, and a bandgap varying continuously with x from about 1.0 eV (for copper indium selenide) to about 1.7 eV (for copper gallium selenide).
http://depts.washington.edu/uwcei/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/PVcelldisplaycards.pdf

Concentrator photovoltaics & High concentrator photovoltaics
Concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) is a photovoltaic technology that generates electricity from sunlight. Contrary to conventional photovoltaic systems, it uses lenses and curved mirrors to focus sunlight onto small, but highly efficient, multi-junction (MJ) solar cells. In addition, CPV systems often use solar trackers and sometimes a cooling system to further increase their efficiency.[2]:30 Ongoing research and development is rapidly improving their competitiveness in the utility-scale segment and in areas of high solar insolation. This sort of solar technology can be thus used in smaller areas. Especially systems using high concentrator photovoltaics (HCPV), have the potential to become competitive in the near future. They possess the highest efficiency of all existing PV technologies, and a smaller photovoltaic array also reduces the balance of system costs. Currently, CPV is not used in the PV roof top segment and far less common than conventional PV systems. For regions with a high annual direct normal irradiance of 2000 kilowatt-hour (kWh) per square meter or more, the levelized cost of electricity is in the range of $0.08–$0.15 per kWh and installation cost for a 10-megawatt CPV power plant was identified to lie between €1.40–€2.20 per watt-peak (Wp).
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/32594.pdf
http://www.isetc.org/English/Archives/201010/Presentations/ISETC-2010-Oct20-Phil_Metz.pdf
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/227421386_High_Concentrator_PhotoVoltaics_efficiencies_Present_status_and_forecast
http://gcep.stanford.edu/pdfs/solar_workshop_10_04/SolarKing2004.pdf
http://www.crses.sun.ac.za/files/services/conferences/annual-student-symposium-2012/22_November/8_Schultz.pdf

Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction.

Photonics is the science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing. Though covering all light's technical applications over the whole spectrum, most photonic applications are in the range of visible and near-infrared light.
http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis-CSP.pdf
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28751.pdf

Photonic Integrated Circuits
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a device that integrates multiple (at least two) photonic functions and as such is similar to an electronic integrated circuit. The major difference between the two is that a photonic integrated circuit provides functionality for information signals imposed on optical wavelengths typically in the visible spectrum or near infrared 850 nm-1650 nm.
http://www.phys.sinica.edu.tw/TIGP-NANO/Course/2008_Spring/classnotes/Nano_MHS_TIGP_20080509_Photonics.pdf
http://www.photonics.ntua.gr/OptikaDiktyaEpikoinwnias/Lecture_6_Integration.pdf
http://optoelectronics.ece.ucsb.edu/sites/default/files/shared/06387568.pdf

Monday, May 8, 2017

HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN NATIONLESS CURRENCY

http://www.olympic-limited.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Olympic-Currency-Pack-All.png

Video guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1278734.0

Building headless Bitcoin on Windows
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=149479.0

Here is a written guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=225690.0

Here is a thread where someone asked a question, and linked a guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=615244.0

Here is how to create a Cryptonote
https://cryptonotestarter.org/

Free & paid coin creation site
https://www.walletbuilders.com/
http://coloredcoins.org/

Coin generator
http://build-a-co.in/

Paid coin creation
https://dev.cryptolife.net/order/custom-altcoin/

Price converter
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1466793.0

Source Codes
https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin
https://github.com/litecoin-project/litecoin
https://github.com/peercoin/peercoin
https://github.com/dogecoin/dogecoin
https://github.com/novacoin-project/novacoin
https://github.com/imak81/earthcoin
https://github.com/lottocoin/lottocoin
https://github.com/FeatherCoin/Feathercoin
https://github.com/coinkeeper/2015-06-22_18-30_anoncoin
https://github.com/LiveChains/asiccoin
https://github.com/nochowderforyou/clams

More source code

IPhone Bitcoin Wallets
https://github.com/blockchain/My-Wallet-iPhone
https://github.com/anderschen/WalletIPhone
https://github.com/ruslan93/My-Wallet
https://github.com/hafizh/iWallet
https://github.com/windvoice/IWallet
https://github.com/bsimic0001/AegisWalletIOS

Android Bitcoin Wallets
https://github.com/mycelium-com/wallet
https://github.com/schildbach/bitcoin-wallet
https://github.com/bither/bither-android
https://github.com/MatthewLM/peercoin-android-wallet
https://github.com/Coinprism/android-wallet
https://github.com/blockchain/Android-Wallet-2-App

Browser Wallets
https://github.com/andrewtoth/BitcoinWallet
https://github.com/enriquez/coinpocketapp.com
https://github.com/frozeman/bitcoin-browser-wallet
https://github.com/micheal-swiggs/brollet
https://github.com/gr33nh00d/Wallet_watcher
https://github.com/rippledj/auroracoin-browser-wallet
https://github.com/applsdev/MyWallet-RPC-Communicator

Paper Wallets
https://github.com/ValleZ/Paper-Wallet
https://github.com/dbasch/bitcoin-paper-wallet
https://github.com/spearson78/paperwallet
https://github.com/gehlm/paper-btc
https://github.com/openpaperwallet/openpaperwallet
https://github.com/makevoid/paperbank
https://github.com/bitfrore/bitfrore
https://github.com/cmrust/paperwalletgenerator

Bitcoin Miners
https://github.com/Diablo-D3/DiabloMiner
https://github.com/m0mchil/poclbm
https://github.com/jgarzik/cpuminer
https://github.com/progranism/Open-Source-FPGA-Bitcoin-Miner
https://github.com/lithander/Minimal-Bitcoin-Miner
https://github.com/jwhitehorn/jsMiner
https://github.com/phoenix2/phoenix
https://github.com/pooler/cpuminer
https://github.com/jgarzik/pyminer
https://github.com/TheSeven/Modular-Python-Bitcoin-Miner
https://github.com/progranism/Bitcoin-JavaScript-Miner
https://github.com/codler/Bitcoin-phpMiner
https://github.com/temujin9/tumen_miner

Faucets
https://github.com/Greedi/bitcoin-faucet
https://github.com/hippich/Faucet
https://github.com/kunwon1/faucet
https://github.com/plaprade/Mojocoin-Faucet
https://github.com/ExploreBTC/BitcoinGrind
https://github.com/Spenzert/CoinFaucet
https://github.com/haskoin/haskoin-faucet
https://github.com/Zen00/openfaucet
https://github.com/blockstrap/faucets
https://github.com/jprichardson/bitcoin-faucet

Bitcoin Charts
https://github.com/yuvalmit/BitCoin
https://github.com/Sourcewerks/BitcoinCharts-PHP
https://github.com/joelthelion/mtgox_chart
https://github.com/jn-pn/cbtc
https://github.com/CryptoMarketMonitor/MarketMonitor
https://github.com/ripper234/Bitcoin-Pie
https://github.com/bitcoinstability/bitcoinstability

Bitcoin Tickers
https://github.com/firebase/btcquote
https://github.com/mertdumenci/Ticker
https://github.com/pheuter/BitcoinTicker
https://github.com/neoranga55/bitcoin-price-ticker
https://github.com/goace/bitcoin-ticker
https://github.com/infincia/BitTicker
https://github.com/DuoSRX/BtcTickerOSX
https://github.com/xvacant/ticker
https://github.com/niedbalski/emacs-btc-ticker
https://github.com/rezin8/ticker
https://github.com/rezin8/ticker


These aren't really coins, but are contracts that are kind of like coins. Kind of like shares of a company that are represented by coins/tokens. They can be used various ways, but are usually advertised as if they are Cryptocurrency, but are not really.
https://www.ethereum.org/token
https://bitshares.openledger.info/account/(your Open Ledger username)/assets/

But if you are going to pay for a Bitshares asset, which is expensive, you might as well just pay for your own coin. The only reason you would want an asset over a coin is if you wanted to have complete control over it, where people don't mine it, you distribute it to them like a share of a company.

Another collection of guides (good ranked list)
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1801477.0

Compile guide for Windows on Linux
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1080289.0

A few cloning guides
https://forum.gethashing.com/t/how-to-clone-a-coin-links-and-resources/3833
http://dillingers.com/blog/2015/04/18/how-to-make-an-altcoin/
https://cryptocointalk.com/topic/3140-shakezulas-scrypt-and-sha256-cryptocurrency-clone-guides/

Not exactly sure what this is, it claims to be an in wallet coin creator, and I assume it is like the ethereum and bitshares assets/contracts, but it may actually be an in wallet coin creator.
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1699319.0

Adding premine to coin
http://dillingers.com/blog/2015/04/23/adding-a-premine-to-an-altcoin/

Genesis Blocks
Most of the guides include this information, but I'm adding it just so that there is as much information in this thread as possible
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/20772606/how-to-create-a-genesis-block-of-my-altercoin/22406608#22406608
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=189350.msg2035449#msg2035449

Genesis block Generator
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=181981.0

Here's a complete guide on creating genesis block, how to edit the source code and control the network:
http://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/123896/Sikorski_Timothy.pdf?sequence=1

Bitcoin cloning guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1019508.0

Another guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1030365.0

A thread where someone has a problem making a coin
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=871564.0

Another guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=420896.0

I have not actually watched this show yet, but while searching for guides I saw a coin with a name similar to the coin in the show, so I thought I would add it here. It's a show about an altcoin startup.
http://m.crackle.com/startup/2499348i

Questions and answers about genesis block
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/20772606/how-to-create-a-genesis-block-of-my-altercoin
https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/21303/how-can-i-create-a-new-genesis-block
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=651695.0
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1011041.0

Learncoin (the coin in the video guides) on Berkley's website
https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~baisang/LearnCoin.pdf

Practicecoin
http://practicecoin.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Cloning-Bitcoin-0.8.99.pdf

Another guide
https://altcoinsfoundation.com/forum/developers/56-how-to-create-your-own-cryptocurrency-altcoin-1-dev

More genesis block info
https://www.quora.com/I-want-to-create-a-new-altcoin-How-do-I-generate-the-Genesis-Block

Bitcoin protocol
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e85a/a20a544f521b9ac529027fce3cbd28dc637b.pdf

Another guide
http://www.0speed.net/2016/10/24/how-to-make-an-altcoin/

Here is the Practice coin thread on Bitcointalk
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1850047.0

Another guide
https://pastebin.com/iL9DeTTS
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1151674.0

Discussion about forking ETH
https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/questions/2014/how-to-fork-my-own-version-of-eth

According to at least this person, cloning Ethereum is extremely easy and he says there are only 2 steps
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1361504.msg13857758#msg13857758

Some developer links
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=763471.msg8604040#msg8604040

Another guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=193025.0

Another guide
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=217636.0

Cryptonote, apparently they don't mind people making new coins and believe in plurality, which would probably be a refreshing difference in launching compared to the normal 'shitcoin' reception that most new coins get.
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=673203.0

I'm looking for Cryptonote and Crpytonight cloning guides, but I found these CPU and GPU miners for Cryptonote incase anyone needs them.
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=638915.0
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=647251.0

To Fork a coin, just find it on Github and click the fork icon that says "fork". If you click the part that actually has the word fork on it, it will fork the coin and you can go in and change things.


Important things to change when making a new coin:

Find and replace all of the old coin's names for your coin's name in the main.cpp file
(check for lowercase, uppercase, and also with the word "coin" uppercase and lowercase)

Find and replace all the coin identifiers and replace with yours (Ex: Changing Litecoin's [LTC] to Dogecoin's [DOGE])

Change number of coins rewarded in a block where is says "Subsidy"

Change Block time

Change Difficulty (called "Target")

Change Block height and halving time.

Genesis block to "x0" meaning you just delete all the numbers after x0, everywhere there is a genesis block.

I am not sure about forks, but with clones you want to also remove the Merkle root.

Then change the headline to a headline from that day so people know what day you made it.

Change Epoch time to the current epoch time (google "current epoch time")

Remove the Nnonce

Remove the Checkpoints (you need 1)

Change ports if you want

Making some fancy graphics

After that, it's just compiling the coin, and running it (with a fatal error on purpose) to get the Merkle and Nnonce, and mining the Genesis block. Make sure you have uncompiled code also, so you can put the Merkle and everything in it.

Then use Gitian Builder to build the wallet.

And at that point you have a coin and it just has to go up on Github and be mined.

I am going to try to make a coin this weekend and post what I am doing here as I do it, then if that doesn't work I have a friend that helped me build a coin (we had to figure this out together, which is where I got this information and why I decided to put this thread together) but we couldn't get it to compile because we used an old guide so we got '-lboost_system' errors. So if my coin doesn't work this weekend, the guy I am making a coin with is going to try the coin we have been working on on CentOS next week instead of Ubuntu (which we were using because it was in the guide), and he is better with CentOS than Ubuntu. And if that doesn't work I will just make a coin after I take some classes or when I find someone else who is interested while I am taking classes.

Programmer's Guide to Ethereum and Serpent
https://mc2-umd.github.io/ethereumlab/docs/serpent_tutorial.pdf

A Treatise on Altcoins
https://download.wpsoftware.net/bitcoin/alts.pdf

Friday, May 5, 2017

You Can't Have a Revoltuion Without Education, Part 1

When people hear the word "Revolution" it brings to mind different things for different people. Some people automatically think of the American Revolution and the Founding Fathers, such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, some people think of the French Revolution and Guillotines, and some people think of the Cuban Revolution and Central/South American Revolutions. But these ideas are often very vague. You can not have a Revolution without Education about Societal structures and previous Revolutions.

Here are various Revolutionaries, many of which were part of successful Revolutions.

http://p3.storage.canalblog.com/37/19/220635/15798156.gif
This is Mohamed Boudiaf who was a leader of the National Liberation Front (FLN) in Algeria. At the time Algeria was a French Colony. The French ruled Algeria from across the Mediterranean with a mix of bureaucracy and force, failing to win hearts and minds. The National Liberation Front built slowly and eventually exploded across Algeria and pushed the French out of Algeria using various tactics including Guerilla warfare.


https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Portrait_Gandhi.jpg/220px-Portrait_Gandhi.jpg
This is Gandhi, who was a primary part of the Indian Independence movement, which started due to an apartheid system in which the Indian people were considered racially inferior within their own country. During this time there were many Revolutionaries, including many which were hung by the British and the Dutch imperialists, but Gandhi was the main Revolutionary which gained independence for India by getting Indians to disobey laws en mass, which clogged the system and caused the Imperial state to fail.



http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/sites/default/files/Che.jpg
This is Che Guevara, who was a wealthy physician from Argentina who took a road trip on a Motorcycle and saw the plight of the working class and began the Cuban Revolution which was eventually won by Fidel Castro.



https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/3b/4d/aa/3b4daafba64c1dc6adc25da581868f95.jpg
This is Pancho Villa who was the Commander of the Northern forces in the Mexican Revolution which started due to problems with the Presidential Electoral system in Mexico mixed with an extremely centralized Government where the President had "Political Bosses" running various regions of Mexico under him. The Mexican Revolution was a full blown armed conflict similar to the American Civil war.


https://media1.britannica.com/eb-media/55/116055-004-AA260E26.jpg
This is the Ayatollah Khomeini who became the leader of Iran after the Iranian Revolution. The Iranian Revolution occurred after Britain decided to install the Shah as the leader of Iran in order to take control of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company of Iran, which is now called British Petroleum (BP).


https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Jean-Paul_Marat_portre.jpg
This is Jean-Paul Marat, who was a major leader in the French Revolution. You have probably heard the phrase "Let them eat cake" and while this may seem like it was a harmless phrase, it comes from a time when French people were having so many economic problems that they could not even make bread, and Marie Antoinette said "Let them eat cake" while she and the other members of her class were not experiencing the any of the economic issues of the French people. Jean-Paul Marat engineered much of the French Revolution from a bathtub, as he had a rare condition which forced him to stay in the water. This is the Revolution where Guillotines were used to chop off the heads of the upper class, and did not end until the advent of Photography, which showed the beheading in their raw form rather than as artist depictions.

Part 2 coming soon.

Saturday, April 29, 2017

How to Make Marijuana Stronger (and other Herbs too)

https://new-media.merryjane.com/sfSYR-zBOfXYePktVRn_hYRqoJE=/files.merryjane.com/uploads/article/small_image/258/1mango.jpg










There have been many articles about this subject, but none that have all of the information contained in this article. Many people at one point or another wonder if they can have the same feeling as their first time smoking Marijuana again, with time slowing down, and extreme giggling, etc, without having to take a long break from using Marijuana, and the answer is, yes. There are various ways to potentiate THC. Potentiating is different than piggy backing, in that potentiaters are primers, while piggy backing is adding one thing to another. Basically, Synergy effect V Combination effect. This article is about Synergy, not Combination effects. Potentiation/Priming, not piggy backing.

Terpenes. The most common thing you may find when researching this topic is Mangoes. There are many articles that exist that state that Mangoes will make Marijuana stronger. The reason for this is because of Terpenes, specifically a Terpene called Myrcene. Terpenes are an entire subject unto themselves, and are actually a big part of some new Medical Marijuana "technology" such as live Resin, which is Hash with Terpenes added to it (because most Terpenes are lost in the vacuum stage of high grade extractions). Terpenes are what give Marijuana its smell, and flavors, but Myrcene, and possibly other terpenes, actually have an effect on how THC works in your body. Myrcene is slightly analgesic and is known to strengthen the effects of Marijuana. Lemonene, another Terpene, has also been shown to strengthen the effects of Marijuana. For example, when Lemonene is used to extract THC from Marijuana, and the resulting liquid is left to evaporate, Lemonene cannot be completely evaporated and so leaves a residue of itself in the hash, and Lemonene extractions have won awards for their strength in comparison to other extractions. And while Myrcene is present in Mangoes, and drinking Mango juice could possibly give you enough Myrcene to potentiate THC. The best way to potentiate with Terpenes is Lemon Grass, Lemon Grass can be bought cheap and in bulk, and contains both Lemonene and Myrcene in large amounts. It can be added to a Marijuana extraction and extracted right along side it, or made into butter with Marijuana. This method achieves much much better results than Mangoes. Myrcene can also be found in beer, as it is what gives Hops their smell and flavor.
https://bonnieplants.com/wp-content/uploads/lemongrass-in-garden_istock.jpg


THCv. This is actually a Cannabinoid, similar to THC, CBD, etc. THCv is found in African Marijuana strains, such as Durban Poison and Malawi Gold. THCv is an Antagonist of the CB1 receptor, meaning that it may have effects similar to THC but is said to be more psychedelic and strengthen the effects of THC, and is believed to possibly be the reason for "One hitter quitter" strains. It is also a CB2 Partial Agonist, which means that it does not cause munchies and can actually decrease appetite.
http://www.weedist.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Even-More-Science-Suggesting-Cannabinoids-May-Halt-Diabetes.png


Kava Kava. This is not Kratom, I know the names are completely different but many people confused Kava Kava with Kratom. They are 2 completely different things. Kava Kava, or just Kava, is a relative of the Pepper plant and can be found in Hawaii and on a few other islands. It has become so wide spread that many large cities in America even have Kava bars, where you can drink Kava. Kava mainly contains molecules known as Kavalactones, but also contains a Cannabinoid called Yangonin. Yangonin is a very little known Cannabinoid, but can have a strong synergy with THC. Kava when mixed with water and consumed like coffee or tea, is a very bitter substance that tastes a lot like dirt water, and has the signature effect of making your mouth go numb (actual numbness, not because of the horrible flavor). It is sold as capsules at most pharmacies over the counter, and can either be bought as capsules or put into capsules by hand. Extractions can be made from Kava just like from Marijuana or Lemon Grass, but you do not want to smoke Kava as it has a horrible flavor and has a taste reminiscent of Chlorine. The best way to consume it is in a capsule, but for the whole mouth numbing experience, you would drink it as a tea.
http://ohanakava.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Kava-Bowl4.jpg


Uziza. This is a plant from Nigeria and few people outside of Nigeria even know that it exists. It is a relative of Pepper and used to be used all around Europe, but somehow fell out of popular use as a table spice, and is now mainly found only in its home country of Nigeria. In Nigeria it is used to make a soup that increases your appetite and is fed to people when they are sick, and it is actually a CB2 receptor Antagonist. Meaning that when it increases your appetite, it is using the same route to do that as Marijuana does when you get the munchies. It is said not to have any effects on the CB1 receptor, but there are also very few people in the world that have ever smoked it. But smoked, it does seem to cause a short buzz. And many people say that Tobacco increases the effects of Marijuana, but if anything like Tobacco is going to do that, it would be Uziza. Uziza can either be made into a soup, a tea, or smoked and can be mixed in a joint with Marijuana. It is inexpensive compared to both Marijuana and Tobacco. The main molecule that gives Uziza its effects is a Terpene called Caryophyllene, which has actually been approved by the FDA for use as a food additive.
 http://www.tropicalappetit.com/assets/images/dsc02183.jpg


Wild Dagga. This is a plant from South Africa, where it is considered to be very similar to Marijuana. Marijuana is called Dagga, this is called Wild Dagga. It is an orange flower in the mint family and contains a molecule called Leonurine which has various medical uses and is similar to (not similar enough to be a replacement for though) THC. When used together with THC there is a Synergy that increases the effects of THC. A relative of Wild Dagga, called Marihuanilla (Spanish for "Little Marijuana") or Siberian Motherwort, can also be used to create a Synergy with Marijuana.
http://painterfactory.com/cfs-filesystemfile/__key/communityserver-discussions-components-files/80/Wild_2D00_Dagga_2D00_Plant.jpg


Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitors. Tylenol is probably the most well known Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitor, but no one knows that it is one. Tylenol breaks down into various Metabolites, including one called AM404, which is a Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitor. The way these work is similar to SSRIs, but they instead of working on Serotonin, they work on Cannabinoids. The reason they work is because your body has natural Endocannabinoids, such as 2-AG and Anandamide (which can be found in Sea Urchin Roe/Eggs, as well as Truffles). A Reuptake Inhibitor works by not allowing your body to throw away any extra Cannabinoids that are in your brain, meaning that your natural Endocannabinoids, and any Cannabinoids that you add to it, have to go to your CB1 and CB2 receptors. Usually if your body detected that there was too much THC or 2-AG or Anandamide in your brain, it would dump (Reuptake) the rest, and put it into your bloodsteam so that it could be taken somewhere outside the brain. But in the presence of a Reuptake Inhibitor, Endocannabinoids and Cannabinoids will stay there until they find a receptor to attach to.

Other Cannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitors:
UCM 707
AM1172
VDM11
VDM13
OMDM1
OMDM2
LY 2183240
LY 2318912
O-2093

http://www.tastewiththeeyes.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/IMG_6787a.jpg
 

Alcohol. Many people may have experienced "the Spins" at some point from smoking Marijuana after drinking too much Alcohol, but it turns out that the Spins are not actually something that happens just because Alcohol and Marijuana are mixed. A study was done by the AACC that actually showed that any amount of Alcohol in the bloodstream, actually strengthened the bodies ability to absorb THC, meaning that a stronger effect is achieved with less Marijuana.
https://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/02/72/9e/c8/filename-dscn0133-jpg.jpg


Syrian Rue. The seeds of the Syrian Rue plant contain various Harmala Alkaloids which act as MAOIs. MAOIs are what are used in Ayahuasca to make DMT active orally, and can be used to effect the way other substances break down in the body as well. Consuming Syrian Rue seeds at least 45 minutes before smoking or eating Marijuana can strengthen the effects. There are many other MAOI containing plants, such as Passionflower or the Ayahuasca Vine, but Syrian Rue seed contains the most. Do not eat cheese with MAOIs as it can be dangerous.
http://cdn3.volusion.com/uahaz.coebq/v/vspfiles/photos/6666-2.jpg


Adducts and Esters. An Adduct is the creation of a new molecule by combining 2 whole molecules in such a way that both molecules are still intact, but are now combined into 1 new molecule (similar to how 2 Amino Acids  come together to create a Peptide). An Adduct of THC could possibly have different effects than THC. Esters are formed by Carboxylic Acid structures (meaning any part of a Molecule which looks like an Amino Acid) combining with Acids. Examples would be THC-O-Phosphate and THC-O-Acetate, and while THC cannot be injected into the bloodsteam, the Esters of THC can be, which would allow THC to be a viable candidate for use in Hospital IVs and not just as a smoked medicine.

CYP450 Enzymes. Not much, if any, research has been done regarding CYP450 Enzymes and Marijuana, but CYP450 Enzymes are the next frontier of Pharmaceuticals. CYP450 Enzymes can be effected similarly to how MAOIs work, and the whole process is best understood through the example of Anti-Oxidants. Everyone has heard "Pomegranate is an Anti-Oxidant" or whatever else is an Anti-Oxidant. What this means is that it is actually effecting the way that your body metabolizes things. Similar to the way DMT is broken down into inactive molecules when taken orally under normal circumstances, but becomes active when taken orally after consuming an MAOI, the effects of any molecule can potentially be changed by altering the way it is broken down. Another example is the Tylenol example, Tylenol breaks down into AM404. This happens because your stomach contains Hydrocholoric Acid, meaning that there are a bunch of Hydrogen atoms in your stomach waiting to react with Oxygen atoms, and as these reactions happen, molecules are turned into different molecules, which is how Tylenol becomes AM404. An example of how CYP450 Enzymes work exactly would be Grapefruit juice. You may have heard of, or experienced, a medicine which warns "DO NOT TAKE WITH GRAPEFRUIT JUICE". This is because Grapefruit juice actually effects your CYP450 Enzymes, and causes certain medicines to not break down when digested, which can then result in death. And it is very possible that there are methods which can be found that can cause THC to be broken down differently. Tumeric has an effect of CYP450 Enzymes and has been said to effect the strength of Marijuana.

Here is how it works

CYP Enzymes (Drug Metabolism, etc)
Induction and Inhibition (Anti-Oxidants, etc)

CYP450 Enzymes may seem like something that would only be effected by some exotic medicine, but just like how some of these Enzymes are effected by Grapefruit juice, they can all be changed by simple foods and things that can be found in a spice cabinet. Here are the things that effect CYP450 Enzymes.

Graviola- 5-HT1a Agonist
Black Cohosh- 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D & 5-HT7 Binding
C. Foetida L.- 5-HT1A Agonist
Yokukansan- 5-HT1A Agonist
DMT hits all of these, and can be found in tons of plants.

Black Cohosh- 5-HT1D
maybe Rhodiola rosea, Albizia lebbeck & Albizia julibrissin.

5-HT1 Receptor Agonists:
Turmeric, Ginger, Ginko Bilboa, Lemon Essential Oil, Rauwolfia, Valerian, Yohimbe

Elmicin & Myristicin (in Nutmeg)- 5-HT2A Agonist
Estragole (in Sweet Basil)- 5-HT2A Agonist
Safrole (in Sassafras)- 5-HT2A Agonist

Cinnamon Bark- CYP2A6 & CYP2E1 Inhibitor (It will deplete your liver's Glutithione) Taken 1 Hour before Allybenzene,
Clove Leaf- CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP1A1 & CYP1B1 Inhibitor
German Chamomile- CYP1A2 Inhibitor (Caffeine may also do this)
GoldenSseal & Echinacea purpurea very effectively do the same thing.
Black seed oil, 50% EGCG, Valerian root oil, Pomegranate, Vitamin B9, 40% Ellagic extract, Rooibos 20% Gallic acid extract, Rutin, B3 & Kudzu
Star Anise Extract or B9 for CYP2C9 Induction

AllylBenzenes
Anethole, Apiol, Asarone, Carpacin, Chavibetol, Chavicol, Dillapiole, Eugenol, Isoeugenol, Isosafrole, Methyl Eugenol, Methyl Isoeugenol,

Phenylpropanoids
Caffeyl Alcohol, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-Cyno-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, Ethyl Cinnamate, Lignin, 2,4-
Methlenedioxypropiophenone, Neoflavonoids, Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, Phenylpropanoic acid, Phloretic acid, Rhododendrin & Suberin.

NMDA Receptor Plants:
Uncaria Rhynchophyllia
Psychotria Colorata
Huperzia Serrata

Several allylbenzenes have been proven to form up to 3 alkaloid metabolites after ingestion by several animals.[They do not form amphetamines in vivo as has been speculated in the past. The alkaloids detected in animal urine are tertiary aminopropiophenones of 3 possible subtypes: dimethylamines, piperidines, and pyrrolidines.

The allylbenzene elemicin has been proven to form all 3 different alkaloid metabolites after ingestion in animals by analyzing urine using gas-liquid chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

Safrole is also proven to form all three alkaloid metabolites after ingestion.

Myristicin appears to only form piperidines and pyrrolidines. Dimethylamines of myristicin have not been detected.

Allylbenzene, from which all allylbenzenes are derived, forms piperidine and dimethylamine alkaloids.

Propenylbenzene and its derivatives (asarone, anethole, etc.) do not form alkaloid metabolites.


Some people have reported Psychedelic effects from Mixing just Coffee, Almond, Cinnamon, Vanilla and Nutmeg.

"One of the banes of the archivist is having to choose one pattern of organization over another. The book store owned by a language scholar will have the German poets and playwrights and novelists here, and the French ones over there. Next door, the book store is run by a letters scholar, and the poetry of the world is here, and the plays of the world are there, regardless of the language of origin. The same obtains with spices, and essential oils, and amphetamines. The spice cabinet is a rich source of chemical treasures, each source plant containing a host of com-pounds, some of which are true essential oils. And the next spice from the next plant has some of the same components and some new ones. Does one organize by plant (spice or herb) or by essential oil (amphetamine)? Let's do it by the ring substitution pattern of the amphetamine, and gather the spices and oils as a secondary collection.
(1) The 4-methoxy pattern. The pivotal essential oil is 4-allylanisole, or methyl chavicol, or estragole (called esdragol in the old literature). This allyl compound is found in turpentine, anise, fennel, bay, tarragon, and basil. Its smell is light, and reminiscent of fennel. The propenyl analogue is called anethole, or anise camphor, and it is found in both anise and camphor. It is a waxy solid, and has a very intense smell of anise or fennel. At low concentrations, it is sweet, as in magnolia blossoms, where it is also found. The drinks that turn cloudy with water dilution (Pernod-like liqueurs, and ouzo and roki), are heavy with it, since it was the natural flavoring in the original absinthe. That drink was very popular in the last century, as an intoxicant which produced an altered state of consciousness beyond that which could be ascribed to alcohol alone. It contained wormwood, which proved to be neurologically damaging. The flavorings, such as anethole, are still big things in synthetic liqueurs such as vermouth. Old anethole, when exposed to air and light, gets thick and sticky and yellowish, and becomes quite disagreeable to taste. Maybe it is polymerizing, or maybe oxidizing to stuff that dimerizes. Whatever. These changes are why old spices in the cabinet are best discarded. And adding ammonia to any of these natural product oils produces, in principle, 4-methoxyamphetamine, 4-MA.

(2) The 3,4-dimethoxy pattern. The main actor here is methyleugenol, or 4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene. This is located in almost every item in the spice cabinet. It is in citronella, bay (which is laurel, which is myrtle), pimiento, allspice, pepper, tree-tea oil, and on and on. It has a faint smell of cloves, and when dilute is immediately mistaken for carnations. The propenyl analogue is, not unreasonably, methylisoeugenol, a bit more scarce, and seems to always be that little minor peak in any essential oil analysis. The compounds missing that methyl group on the 4-oxygen are famous. The allyl material is eugenol, 4-allylguaiacol, and it is in cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, sassafras and myrrh. You taste it and it burns. You smell it and think immediately of cloves. And its property as an anesthetic, in the form of a clove, is well known in the folk-treatment of toothaches. Actually, flowers of clove (the gillyflower, like the carnation) are the small, pointy things that decorate baked hams and, when stuck into apples, make pomander balls. This anesthetic property has recently led to a drug abuse fad, called clove cigarettes. Very strong, very flavorful, and very corrosive things from Southeast Asia. The eugenol that is present numbs the throat, and allows many strong cigarettes to be smoked without pain. The propenyl analogue is isoeugenol, with a smell that is subtle but very long lasting, used more in soaps and perfumes than in foods. The amine addition to the methyleugenol world produces 3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine, or 3,4-DMA. The isomer with the other methyl group missing is chavibetol (3-hydroxy-4-

methoxyallylbenzene) and is found in the pepper leaf that is used with betel nut. A couple of positional rearrangement isomers of methyleugenol are known in the plant world. The 2,4-isomer is called osmorrhizole, and the conjugated form is isoosmorrhizole or nothosmyrnol; both are found in carrot-like vegetables. They, with ammonia, would give 2,4-DMA. And the 3,5-dimethoxyallylbenzene isomer from artemisia (a pungent herb commonly called mugwort) and from sage, would give rise to 3,5-DMA. This is an unexplored isomer which would be both an antidote for opium as well as a stimulant, if the classical reputation of mugwort is transferred to the amphetamine.
(3) The 3,4-methylenedioxy pattern. One of the most famous essential oils is safrole, or 4-allyl-1,2-
methylenedioxybenzene. This is the mainstay of sassafras oil, and it and its conjugated isomer isosafrole have a smell that is immediately familiar: root beer! These are among the most widely distributed essential oils, being present in most of the spices, including the heavies such as cinnamon and nutmeg. I am not aware of the 2,3-isomer ever having been found in nature. Adding ammonia to either would give MDA.
(4) The 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy pattern. The parent compound is myristicin, 5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-
methylenedioxybenzene, and the source of this is nutmeg (or the botanically parallel material, mace). The nutmeg is the seed of the tree Myristica fragrans and mace is the fibrous covering of the seed. The two spices are virtually identical as to their chemical composition. Myristicin and the conjugated isomer isomyristicin are also found in parsley oil, and in dill. This was the oil that was actually shown to be converted to MMDA by the addition of ammonia by passage through an in vitro liver preparation. So here is the major justification for the equation between the essential oils and the Essential Amphetamines. Care must be taken to make an exact distinction between myristicin (this essential oil) and myristin (the fat) which is really trimyristin or glyceryl trimyristate from nutmeg and coconut. This is the fat from myristic acid, the C-14 fatty acid, and these two similar names are often interchanged even in the scientific literature.
(5) The 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy pattern. This is the second of the three natural methoxy methylenedioxy orientations. Croweacin is 2-methoxy-3,4-
methylenedioxyallylbenzene, and it takes its name from the binomial for the plant Eriostemon crowei from the worlds of rue and the citrus plants. It corresponds to the essential amphetamine MMDA-3a. This oil is found in plants of the Family Rutaceae. My memories of this area of botany are of Ruta graveolens, the common rue, whose small leaves smelled to me, for all the world, like cat urine. This plant has always fascinated me because of a most remarkable recipe that I was given by a very, very conservative fellow-club member, one evening, after rehearsal. He told me of a formula that had provided him with the most complete relief from arthritic pain he had ever known. It was a native decoction he had learned of many years eariler, when he was traveling in Mexico. One took equal quantities of three plants, Ruta graveolens (or our common rue), Rosmarinus officinalis (better known as rosemary), and Cannabis sativa (which is recognized in many households simply as marijuana). Three plants all known in folklore, rue as a symbol for repentance, rosemary as a symbol of remembrance, and pot, well, I guess it is a symbol of a lot of things to a lot of people. Anyway, equal quantities of these three plants are allowed to soak in a large quantity of rubbing alcohol for a few weeks. Then the alcoholic extracts are clarified, and allowed to evaporate in the open air to a thick sludge. This then was rubbed on the skin, where the arthritis was troublesome, and always rubbed in the direction of the extremity. It was not into, but onto the body that it was applied. All this from a very conservative Republican friend!
The methoxy-methylenedioxy pattern is also found in nature with the 2,4,5-orientation pattern. The allyl-2,4,5-isomer is called asaricin. It, and its propenyl-isomer, carpacin, are from the Carpano tree which grows in the Solomon Islands. All these plants are used in folk medicine. These two systems, the 2,3,4- and the 2,4,5-orientations, potentially give rise, with ammonia, to MMDA-3a and MMDA-2.

(6) The 3,4,5-trimethoxy pattern. Elemicin is the well studied essential oil, 5-allyl-1,2,3-
trimethoxybenzene, primarily from the oil of elemi. It is, like myristicin, a component of the Oil of Nutmeg, but it is also found in several of the Oils of Camphor, and in the resin of the Pili in the Philippines. This tree is the source of the Oil of Elemi. I had found a trace component in nutmeg many years ago that proved to be 5-methoxyeugenol, or elemicin without the 4-methyl group; it is also present in the magnolia plant. The aldehyde that corresponds to this is syringaldehyde, and its prefix has been spun into many natural products. Any natural product with a syring somewhere in it has a hydroxy between two methoxys. The amphetamine base from elemicin or isoelemicin would be TMA, the topic of this very recipe.
(7) The 2,4,5-trimethoxy pattern. There is an essential oil called asarone that is 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-
propenylbenzene. It is the trans- or alpha-isomer, and the cis-isomer is known as beta-asarone. It is the isomerization analogue of the much more rare 1-allyl-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene, gamma-asarone, or euasarone, or sekishone. Asarone is the major component of Oil of Calamus obtained from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus, the common Sweet Flag that grows wild on the edges of swamps throughout North America, Europe, and Asia. It has been used as a flavoring of liqueurs and, as almost every other plant known to man, has been used as a medicine. In fact, in Manitoba this plant was called Rat-root by the Cree Indians in the Lake Winnipeg area known as New Iceland, and Indian-root by the Icelandic pioneers. It was used externally for the treatment of wounds, and internally for most illnesses. There apparently is no report of central effects. The corresponding propanone, acoramone (or 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetone), is also present in Oil of Calamus. The styrene that corresponds to asarone is found in a number of plants, and is surprisingly toxic to brine shrimp. The older literature describes an allyl-trimethoxy benzene called calamol, but it has never been pinned down as to structure. The isolation of gamma-asarone or euasarone from Oil of Xixin (from wild ginger) has given rise to a potential problem of nomenclature. One of the Genus names associated with wild ginger is Asiasarum which looks very much like the name asarone, which comes from the Genus Acorus. And a second Genus of medical plants also called wild ginger is simply called Asarum. There is an Asarum forbesi from central China, and it is known to give a pleasant smell to the body. And there is Asarum seiboldi which is largely from Korea and Manchuria. It has many medical uses, including the treatment of deafness, epilepsy, and rheumatism. The amphetamine that would arise from this natural treasure chest is TMA-2.
( 8 ) The 2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-
methylenedioxy pattern. The parent allyl benzene is apiole (with a final "e") or parsley camphor, and it is the major component of parsley seed oil. Its conjugated isomer is called isoapiole, and they are valuable as the chemical precurors to the amination product, DMMDA. Whereas both of these essential oils are white solids, there is a green oily liquid that had been broadly used years ago in medicine, called green, or liquid apiol (without the final "e"). It comes from the seeds of parsley by ether extraction, and when the chlorophyll has been removed, it is known as yellow apiol. With the fats removed by saponification and distillation, the old term for the medicine was apiolin. I would assume that any of these would give rise to white, crystalline apiole on careful distillation, but I have never tried to do it. The commercial Oil of Parsley is so readily available.
(9) The 2,3-dimethoxy-4,5-
methylenedioxy pattern. The second of the three tetraoxygenated essential oils is 1-allyl-2,3-dimethoxy-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene, commonly called dillapiole and it comes, not surprisingly, from the oils of any of the several dill plants around the world. It is a thick, almost colorless liquid, but its isomerization product, isodillapiole, is a white crystalline product which melts sharply. This, by the theoretical addition of ammonia, gives DMMDA-2.
(10) The tetramethoxy pattern. The third and last of the tetra-oxygenated essential oils, is 1-allyl-2,3,4,5-
tetramethoxybenzene. This is present as a minor component in the oil of parsley, but it is much more easily obtained by synthesis. It, and its iso-compound, and the amination product, are discussed under the last of theTen Essential Amphetamines, TA."

Friday, April 28, 2017

Armed Protests Against Police Violence

So before reading this, you should know that holding a gun is not equal to violence. If you think that this article promotes violence, you might need a dictionary.

"They’re not really aware that-They know some shits going on in this country somewhere but a lot of people out there don’t know where it’s at. They think it’s the black people doing it, you dig? That, “All those riots are causing my life to be miserable in all areas,“ you know. And they really haven’t focused in on the fact that it’s the pigs and their lynchers, the people who control the pigs, the power structure. Those bald headed businessmen at the chamber of commerce, you see. They’re not turned on to that power structure, they just know that life is becoming increasingly miserable for everybody.
But when they find out who it is that’s causing trouble, and who it is that’s making life miserable, and who it is that’s responsible for all their sons being murdered in Vietnam; when they get tuned in to that they’ll now be just like the Panthers. This is what we’re tuned into. We see what’s going on and more and more people are turning on to that.” -Eldridge Cleaver

These Police shootings are getting out of hand. This needs to get more serious.

First, Protestors need to start carrying Shotguns and Rifles, and at the very least there should be a group or various groups that travel around the country to bear arms at protests. You can openly carry, non-threateningly, a long arm (Rifle or Shotgun) in most states. After about 3 Police shootings where 20 or more people came out with guns and stood silently holding the guns protecting protesters from the Police, the Police would start being a lot more friendly.





States that Prohibit Open Carrying of Long Guns:
California
District of Columbia
Florida
Illinois
Massachusetts
Minnesota
New Jersey

States that Restrict, But Do Not Prohibit, the Open Carrying of Long Guns:
Iowa
Michigan
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Utah
Virginia

If anyone wants to transport a shotgun or rifle between states to bear arms in protest, there is the Firearm Owner's Protection Act (18 U.S. Code § 926A - Interstate transportation of firearms). You can transport a Shotgun or Rifle in your trunk or in a locked box, unloaded, out of reach if you have no trunk. And you can ignore any laws of any jurisdictions you pass through as long as you do that. Just make sure the place you are going allows open carry of long arms.





Now, some laws against Police shooting people.

To start off, there is the Eric Courtney Harris case. Where the Officer said he meant to use his taser and accidentally used his gun. This is good precedent for any case involving an Officer who shoots an unarmed person, no matter how much danger they feel they are in from that unarmed person. This case should be brought up in all unarmed police shootings, simply so that it can become a regular part of case law (as well as provide any case law that it contains) and be expanded on.

The 4th Amendment gives individuals the right to be "Secure in their Persons"
United States v. Brignoni-Ponce (1975)
"Whenever an officer restrains the freedom of a person to walk away, he has seized that person."


These are the main 2 cases that Police will use in their defense:
Tennessee v. Garner (1985)
"the use of force on a fleeing suspect has to be based on probable cause that they pose a threat"
"the killing of a fleeing suspect is a seizure under the Fourth Amendment, and is therefore constitutional only if reasonable."
"one of the factors is the extent of the intrusion, it is plain that reasonableness depends on not only when a seizure is made, but also how it is carried out" see, e.g.,United States v. Ortiz (1975); Terry v. Ohio (1968)
"Almost all crimes formerly punishable by death no longer are or can be." See, e.g., Enmund v. Florida (1982); Coker v. Georgia (1977)
"And while in earlier times "the gulf between the felonies and the minor offences was broad and deep," 2 Pollock & Maitland 467, n. 3; Carroll v. United States, supra, at 158, today the distinction is minor, and often arbitrary. Many crimes classified as misdemeanors, or nonexistent, at common law are now felonies. Wilgus, 22 Mich.L.Rev. at 572-573. These changes have undermined the concept, which was questionable to begin with, that use of deadly force against a fleeing felon is merely a speedier execution of someone who has already forfeited his life. They have also made the assumption that a "felon" is more dangerous than a misdemeanant untenable."
"It forbids the use of deadly force to apprehend a misdemeanant, condemning such action as disproportionately severe. See Holloway v. Moser, 193 N.C., at 187, 136 S.E. at 376; State v. Smith, 127 Iowa at 535, 103 N.W. at 945. See generally Annot., 83 A.L.R. 3d 238 (1978)."
"The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the New York City Police Department, for example, both forbid the use of firearms except when necessary to prevent death or grievous bodily harm. Id. at 40-41; App. 83. For accreditation by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, a department must restrict the use of deadly force to situations where "the officer reasonably believes that the action is in defense of human life . . . or in defense of any person in immediate danger of serious physical injury.""

Graham v. Connor (1989)
"The reasonableness of a particular force must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight"
"quite apart from any 'specific' of the Bill of Rights, application of undue force by law enforcement officers deprives a suspect of liberty without due process of law."
"Fourth Amendment's prohibition against unreasonable seizures of the person, holding that the "reasonableness" of a particular seizure depends not only on when it is made, but also on how it is carried out."
an officer's good intentions do not make an objectively unreasonable use of force constitutional. See Scott v. United States, citing United States v. Robinson (1973).
"A "seizure" triggering the Fourth Amendment's protections occurs only when government actors have, "by means of physical force or show of authority, . . . in some way restrained the liberty of a citizen," Terry v. Ohio (1968); see Brower v. County of Inyo (1989).
"an Eighth Amendment violation requires proof of the "unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain."'" quoting Ingraham v. Wright, in turn quoting Estelle v. Gamble (1976).
"in assessing the credibility of an officer's account of the circumstances that prompted the use of force, a factfinder may consider, along with other factors, evidence that the officer may have harbored ill-will toward the citizen." See Scott v. United States (1978)

Monday, April 24, 2017

The Ogdoad


The Ogdoad can be found as a theme throughout most modern religions and some ancient Religions. An example of this is ancient Egypt. In the picture above you can see that the Sun has been placed in a boat, this is known as the "Solar boat" and it is thought to be part of the force that moves the Sun and the Moon across the sky. But if you look in the Solar boat you will see more Gods than just the Sun and moon, this is because the Egyptians noticed the Planets in the sky and called them Gods, just like the Sun was a God. This religion can be found in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Sumeria, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and Modern India.

In Ancient Egypt they were very good at keeping records, and not just in hieroglyphs but in other ways. For example the Egyptians had a 365 day Calendar, they did this by creating a wall to work as a false horizon. Then they would mark the wall every day when the Sun came up, and throughout the year the Sun moves across the Horizon, and at the end of 365 days it ends up back in the same spot and they have 365 marks on the wall.

This is also where the Constellations come from. Aquarius and Taurus and Pisces and Libra and Leo and Scorpio, etc. Aren't random, those are the stars the Sun passes through, and those give us the names of our months.




Venus = ♀
Mars = ♂

Sun = Gold
Moon = Silver
Mercury = Mercury
Venus = Copper
Mars = Iron
Jupiter = Tin
Saturn = Lead

Aries, the Ram=April=Amethyst
Taurus, the Bull=May=Agate
Gemini, the Twins=June=Beryl
Cancer, the Crab=July=Emerald
Leo, the Lion=August=Ruby
Virgo, the Virgin=September=Jasper
Libra, the Balance=October=Diamond
Scorpio, the Scorpion=November=Topaz
Sagittarius, the Archer=December=Carbuncle
Capricorn, the Goat=January=Onyx Chalcedony
Aquarius, the Waterbearer=February=Sapphire
Pisces, the Fishes=March =Chrysolite






Then there was Horus who represented the Horizon, but he was the planet Mars. They figured out the Cycle of Mars just like the Sun, and they also had the Moon's Cycles (And Moon Cycles give the lengths of our Months) and the Cycles of various planets. Even the Jewish Nomads knew about some of the Planets, they called Mars "The Blushing One". And in Christianity the 7 known planets of the time can be found in the Ancient Greek Christian Gnostic idea of "The 7 Heavens" which represented the "Bodies in the Heavens" or "Planets". Some people like to say "The Planets were named after the Gods, the Gods weren't named after the planets" but that would only be true if Greece and Rome discovered the planets independently, but Greece found them before Rome and showed them to Rome. And Egypt and Sumeria actually found them first. The 7 Heavenly bodies can still be found in our days of the week "Sun day" for the Sun, "Mon Day" for the Moon, etc.

Saturn = Saturday
Sun = Sunday
Moon = Monday
Mars = Tuesday
Mercury = Wednesday
Jupiter = Thursday
Venus = Friday

A lot of people see statues of Zeus now a days and think that Ancient people thought Zeus threw lightning bolts at them, but before people knew about Gravity and the Atmosphere, they thought the Planets controlled the weather and it was specifically thought that Jupiter (Zeus) controlled the Lightning. Many Temples were forms of schools, or places that kept traditions and codes, similar to Freemason lodges today. For example the Cult of Mithras was the Government of Rome, Temples to Imhotep and Asclepius were the first Hospitals. Other examples are Orphism, the Mysteries of Isis, Dionysian Mysteries, Eleusinian Mysteries, etc.

Muse

Domain Emblem
Calliope Epic poetry Writing tablet, Stylus, Lyre
Clio History Scrolls, Books, Cornet, Laurel wreath
Euterpe Music, Song, and Lyric Poetry Aulos (an ancient Greek musical instrument like a flute), panpipes, laurel wreath
Erato Love poetry Cithara (an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre family)
Melpomene Tragedy Tragic mask, Sword (or any kind of blade), Club, Kothornos (boots)
Polyhymnia Hymns Veil, Grapes (referring to her as an agricultural goddess)
Terpsichore Dance Lyre, Plectrum
Thalia Comedy Comic mask, Shepherd's crook (the vaudeville act of pulling someone off the stage with a hook is a reference to Thalia's crook), Ivy wreath
Urania Astronomy Globe and compass

Many plants used to be thought to have a cycle based on the Planets and not the sun, and in the modern "Old Farmer's Almanac" every year they publish the planetary crop planting cycle. And the history of Machines and Gears actually comes from the measuring of the sky on boats, and people making mechanical navigation devices. So Machines come from this also.

Isolationism V Diffusionism

Isolationism is the theory that bodies of water have separated all cultures until recently. Diffusionism is the theory that Humans have spent a lot more time on the ocean than just for fishing.

For a long time is was thought that the first Boats were Canoes and then from there people added extra walls to keep water out, and that eventually became a hull and a deck etc. (like Noah's Ark) But then it was discovered that the first boats were actually more like Rafts, and the goal was not to keep water out, but just to be as Buoyant as possible.


Then it was thought for a long time (and some people still think today) that Oceans were a massive obstacle that could never have been crossed until Navigation evolved and Boats became "Ships". But Thor Heyerdahl proved that wrong. He took 3 trips across the Ocean, 1 failed, but 2 succeeded, and he did it on a Raft the 1st time and a Reed (Grass) Boat the 2nd time. And he copied the designs of Ancient Boats.


Here is his book called "Early Man and the Ocean":
http://www.amazon.com/Early-Man-Ocean-Beginnings-Civilizations/dp/0385127103/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1419810593&sr=8-1&keywords=Early+Man+and+the+Ocean

The Aboriginals in and around Australia made their way to Australia and Papau New Guinea over 70,000 years ago, the Paupaun people have ancient DNA from a species of people known as "Denisovan". There is also a Dog there that is a species of its own known as a "Singing Dog".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denisovan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Guinea_singing_dog 

Thor Heyerdahl proved that people can cross the ocean in ancient boats, but there was still (and sometimes still are) people that think "The Ocean was still far too expansive for Ancient man to even TRY to test it". But then there are things like the Kula Ring, which the Paupaun people still do today. What this is is a trade ring where they make dangerous trips in small boats just to trade trinkets, and as they trade trinkets they get more status between tribes. So it is not a large leap to say that someone might load up on trinkets and make their way as far as they possibly can, then just getting there and teaching an entirely new tribe about new things. Like Boats, or a New Metals, or Jewelry, or New Animals, or Double Headed Axes, etc.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kula_ring

The Yam/Sweet Potato is a perfect example of a Plant that made its way around the entire planet, and no one knows how. It's just everywhere.